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5 perceive that both the “ represented white, but “ dicate water; in this i: “ the place of air, or, in « “If we observe our see “supplied with water, 1, “ germination cannot tal “here that this can neve “ water having the por “ extent, the seed a in “ certain amount of this “to this, germination “means under such adv: “ were the soil in a bett.

“We pass on now to “ state of matters. Th “plied with air, while t “ consequently, you per: " that, while the seed v “ quite enough of air “the canals, it can neve “ without moisture, as ( “particle of soil “ touches it is well su? “ with this necessary “gredient. This, the “the proper condition o “for germination, an “ fact for every period: “plant's development : “soil is moist, but not “color and appearanca "" is still capable of bei .“ without any of its “ familiar form of mus

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price of frontier Isoda per she water which stands on the

march the quantity of stone to SURTOUTISET of making wide ditches

e cae litches incidentally, as

I imming is not needed by the a s operations are simple, and tae)

hon for their performance. 100

it those who occupy lands of
mr dorimity to market, to mas
eveil, than to buy more land for
a s er return from poor cultiratias

All ever Indian corn is worth fifty cents a bushel, on the that it will pay to thoroughly drain every acre of land

I needs draining. If, from want of capital, this cannot

ne at once, it is best to first drain a portion of the Itzen

doing the work thoroughly well, and to apply the n from the improvement to its extension over other ons afterward.

pursuance of the foregoing declaration of principles, left to the sagacity of the individual operator, to dewhen the full effect desired can be obtained, on particuinds, without applying the regular system of depth distance, which has been found sufficient for the worst 3. The directions of this book will be confined to the tment of land which demands thorough work.

ich land is that which, at some time during the period "egetation, contains stagnant water, at least in its sub

within the reach of the roots of ordinary crops; in ch there is not a free outlet at the bottom for all the er which it receives from the heavens, from adjoining 1, or from springs; and which is more or less in the conon of standing in a great, water-tight box, with opens to let water in, but with no means for its escape, ext by evaporation at the surface; or, having larger in.

than outlets, and being at times “ water-logged,” at st in its lower parts. The subsoil, to a great extent, conis of clay or other compact material, which is not im. rious, in the sense in which india-rubber is impervious, se it could not have become wet,) but which is suffi ntly so to prevent the free escape of water. The surface 1 is of a lighter or more open character, because of the Itivation it has received, or of the decayed vegetable itter and the roots which it contains. In such land the subsoil is wet,-almost constantly wet,d the falling rain, finding only the surface soil in a condion to receive it, soon fills this, and often more than fills it, id stands on the surface. After the rain, come wind and To one writing in advocacy of improvements, of any kind, there is always a temptation to throw a tub to the popular whale, and to suggest some make-shift, by which a certain advantage may be obtained at half-price. It is proposed in this essay to resist that temptation, and to ad. here to the rule that " whatever is worth doing, is worth doing well,” in the belief that this rule applies in no other department of industry with more force than in the draining of land, whether for agricultural or for sanitary improvement. Therefore, it will not be recommended that draining be ever confined to the wettest lands only; that, in the pursuance of a penny-wisdom, drains be constructed with stones, or brush, or boards; that the antiquated borse-shoe tiles be used, because they cost less money; or that it will, in any case, be economical to make only such drains as are necessary to remove the water of large springs. The doctrine herein advanced is, that, so far as draining is applied at all, it should be done in the most thorough and complete manner, and that it is better that, in commencing this improvement, a single field be really well drained, than that the whole farm be half drained.

Of course, there are some farms which suffer from too much water, which are not worth draining at present; many more which, at the present price of frontier lands, are only worth relieving of the water which stands on the surface; and not a few on which the quantity of stone to be removed suggests the propriety of making wide ditches, in which to hide them, (using the ditches, incidentally, as drains). A hand-book of draining is not needed by the owners of these farms; their operations are simple, and they require no especial instruction for their performance. This work is addressed especially to those who occupy lands of sufficient value, from their proximity to market, to make it cheaper to cultivate well, than to buy more land for the sake of getting a larger return from poor cultivation. Wherever Indian corn is worth fifty cents a bushel, on the farm, it will pay to thoroughly drain every acre of land which needs draining. If, from want of capital, this cannot be done at once, it is best to first drain a portion of the farm, doing the work thoroughly well, and to apply the return from the improvement to its extension over other portions afterward.

In pursuance of the foregoing declaration of principles, it is left to the sagacity of the individual operator, to decide when the full effect desired can be obtained, on particular lands, without applying the regular system of depth xud distance, which has been found sufficient for the worst yases. The directions of this book will be confined to the treatment of land which demands thorough work.

Such land is that which, at some time during the period of vegetation, contains stagnant water, at least in its subsoil, within the reach of the roots of ordinary crops; in which there is not a free outlet at the bottom for all the water which it receives from the heavens, from adjoining land, or from springs; and which is more or less in the condition of standing in a great, water-tight box, with openings to let water in, but with no means for its escape, ex. cept by evaporation at the surface; or, having larger inlets than outlets, and being at times “ water-logged,” at least in its lower parts. The subsoil, to a great extent, consists of clay or other compact material, which is not impervious, in the sense in which india-rubber is impervious, (else it could not have become wet,) but which is suffi ciently so to prevent the free escape of water. The surface soil is of a lighter or more open character, because of the cultivation it has received, or of the decayed vegetable matter and the roots which it contains.

In such land the subsoil is wet,-almost constantly wet, and the falling rain, finding only the surface soil in a condition to receive it, soon fills this, and often more than fills it, and stands on the surface. After the rain, come wind and sun, to dry off the standing water,-to dry cut the free wa ter in the surface soil, and to drink up the water of the subsoil, which is slowly drawn from below. If no spring, or ooze, keep up the supply, and if no more rain fall, the subsoil may be dried to a considerable lepth, cracking and gaping open, in wide fissures, as the clay loses its water of absorption, and shrinks. After the surface soil has become sufficiently dry, the land may be plowed, seeds will germinate, and plants will grow. If there be not too much rain during the season, nor too little, the crop may be a fair one,-if the land be rich, a very good one. It is not impossible, nor even very uncommon, for such soils to produce largely, but they are always precarious. To the labor and expense of cultivation, which fairly earn a secure return, there is added the anxiety of chance; success is greatly dependent on the weather, and the weather may be bad. Heavy rains, after planting, may cause the seed to rot in the ground, or to germinate imperfectly; heavy rains during early growth may give an unnatural development, or a feeble character to the plants ; later in the season, the want of sufficient rain may cause the crop to be parched by drought, for its roots, disliking the clammy subsoil below, will have extended within only a few inches of the surface, and are too subject to the action of the sun's heat; in harvest time, bad weather may delay the gathering until the crop is greatly injured, and fall and spring work must often be put off because of wet.

The above is no fancy sketch. Every farmer who culti vates a retentive soil will confess, that all of these incon veniences conspire, in the same season, to lessen his returns, with very damaging frequency; and nothing is more common than for him to qualify his calculations with the proviso, “if I have a good season.” He prepares his grour d. plants his seed, cultivates the crop,“ does his best,” thinks he does his best, that is, and trusts to Providence to send him good weather. Such farming is attended with

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