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DRAINING FOR HEALTH.
GEO. E^WAKING, Jr.,
ENGINEER OF THE DRAINAGE OF CENTRAL PARK, NEW TORS.
HEW AHD EEVISED EDITION.
"EVERY REPORTED CASE OF FAILURE IN DRAINAGE WHICH WE HAVE INVESTI-
"Or Bad Execution."—Gisiwrne.
ILLUS T RAT B B.
ORANGE JXJDD COMPANY,
Bntered, according to Act of Congress, In the year 1887, by the
Printed In U. S. A.
NOTE TO FIRST EDITION.
In presenting this book to the public the writer desires to nay that, having in view the great importance of thorough work in land draining, and believing it advisable to avoid everything which might be construed Into an approval of half-way measures, be has purposely taken the most radical view of the whole subject, and has endeavored to emphasize the necessity for the utmost thoroughness in all draining operations, from the first staking of the lines to the final filling-in of the ditches.
That it is sometimes necessary, because of limited means, or limited time, or for other good reasons, to drain partially or imperfectly, or with a view only to temporary results, is freely acknowledged. In these cases the occasion for less completeness in the work must determine the extent to which the directions herein laid down are to bo disregarded; but it is believed that, even in such cases, the principles on which those directions are founded should be always borne in mind.
None of the principles set forth in the First Edition of this book have been modified by later experience. Some of the processes for the execution of the work have, however, been so much improved as to make a revision necessary.
It is now twenty years since this book was first written. During this time the extension of the tile drainage of agricultural lands throughout the North and West, and to no little extent throughout the South, has been very great. There are probably more factories for the manufacture of drain tiles in active operation now than there were tile-drained farms in 1866.
There has been no modification of methods in practical drainage at all comparable with its extent. The more important changes have been Incorporated with the directions given in the various chapters of this work. Some improvements have been introduced since the publication of the Second Edition in 1879.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
1. —A dry soil, (from Dr. Madden'a lecture) 11
2. —A wet soil" •'" 18
3. —A drained soil" **" ... 14
4. —A map of land with swamps, rocks, springs and trees BO
5. —Hap with 60-foot squares and contour lines 51
0.—Levelling instrument 52
7. — " rod 53
8. —Map with contour lines 54
9. —Wells' Clinometer 68
10. —Stone pit to connect spring with drain 69
11. —Stone pit and tile-basin for same object 60
12. —Line of saturation between drains 66
IS.—Horse-shoe tile 78
14. —Sole-tile 80
15. —Double-sole-tile 80
16. —Round tile (or pipe) and collar 81
Three profiles of drains with different inclinations 92
20. —Map with drains and contour lines 98
21. —Profile of Drain O 106
22. —Set of tools, (from Drainage des Terres Arables) 114
23. —Outlet secured with masonry and grating, (from the same) 118
24. —Silt-basin, built to the surface 121
25. —Finishing spade 123
26. — " scoop 123
27. —Bracing the sides of drains in soft land 124
28. —Measuring staff 124
29. —Boning-Rod 125
30.—Position of workman, and use of scoop, (from Drainage des Terres
SI.—Use of Boning-Rods 126
32. —Tile-pick 131
33. —Lateral drain entering at top of main 134
34.—Sectional view of joint 134
35.—Square, brick silt-basin 135
36. —Silt-basin of vitrified pipe 134
37. —Tile Silt-basin 136
38. —Maul for ramming 138
39. —Board scraper for filling ditches 140
40. —Drain with a furrow at each, side 141
41. —Foot-pick 156
42. —Pug-Mlll 179
43.—Plate of dies 180
44. —Cheap wooden machine, (from Drainage des Terres Arables) 181
45. —Mandril for carrying tiles from machine, (from the same) 182
46. —Clay-kiln, (from Journal Royal Agricultural Society) 184
47. —Dyke and ditch 197
48. —Old system of house drainage, I from Report of Board of I 2M
49. —New" " "1 Health, (England). 1 !W7
50-57.—Boymon's tiles and connections 242
58-69.—Outlet grntiiiL' and outlet 245
60-64.—English dra nine lo°ls 24s
65.—Opeuing the ditch and laying the tileB 219
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.—LAND TO BE DRAINED, AND THE REASON WHY.
Indications of the need of draining.—Sources of water.—Objections
Characteristics of a well laid tile-drain.—Surface-water and rain-water
CHAPTER III.—HOW TO GO TO WORK TO LAY OUT A SYSTEM OF DRAINS.
Amateur draining.—Maps.—Levelling instruments.—Outlets and loca-
Tools.—Marking the lines.—Water-courses.—Outlets.—Silt-Basins.—
CHAPTER V.—How To Take Care Of Drains And Drained Land.
Removing obstructions.—Mistake of substituting large tiles for small
Draining, expensive work.—Permanence and lasting effects.—Cheap-