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AND

DRAINING FOR HEALTH.

BY

GEO. E^WAKING, Jr.,

ENGINEER OF THE DRAINAGE OF CENTRAL PARK, NEW TORS.

HEW AHD EEVISED EDITION.

"EVERY REPORTED CASE OF FAILURE IN DRAINAGE WHICH WE HAVE INVESTI-
"GATED, HAS REBOLTED ITSELF INTO IGNORANCE, BLUNDERING, BAD MANAGEMENT,

"Or Bad Execution."—Gisiwrne.

ILLUS T RAT B B.

NEW YORK:

ORANGE JXJDD COMPANY,
1911

Bntered, according to Act of Congress, In the year 1887, by the
O. JUDD CO.,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Printed In U. S. A.

NOTE TO FIRST EDITION.

In presenting this book to the public the writer desires to nay that, having in view the great importance of thorough work in land draining, and believing it advisable to avoid everything which might be construed Into an approval of half-way measures, be has purposely taken the most radical view of the whole subject, and has endeavored to emphasize the necessity for the utmost thoroughness in all draining operations, from the first staking of the lines to the final filling-in of the ditches.

That it is sometimes necessary, because of limited means, or limited time, or for other good reasons, to drain partially or imperfectly, or with a view only to temporary results, is freely acknowledged. In these cases the occasion for less completeness in the work must determine the extent to which the directions herein laid down are to bo disregarded; but it is believed that, even in such cases, the principles on which those directions are founded should be always borne in mind.

None of the principles set forth in the First Edition of this book have been modified by later experience. Some of the processes for the execution of the work have, however, been so much improved as to make a revision necessary.

It is now twenty years since this book was first written. During this time the extension of the tile drainage of agricultural lands throughout the North and West, and to no little extent throughout the South, has been very great. There are probably more factories for the manufacture of drain tiles in active operation now than there were tile-drained farms in 1866.

There has been no modification of methods in practical drainage at all comparable with its extent. The more important changes have been Incorporated with the directions given in the various chapters of this work. Some improvements have been introduced since the publication of the Second Edition in 1879.

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

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1. —A dry soil, (from Dr. Madden'a lecture) 11

2. —A wet soil" •'" 18

3. —A drained soil" **" ... 14

4. —A map of land with swamps, rocks, springs and trees BO

5. —Hap with 60-foot squares and contour lines 51

0.—Levelling instrument 52

7. — " rod 53

8. —Map with contour lines 54

9. —Wells' Clinometer 68

10. —Stone pit to connect spring with drain 69

11. —Stone pit and tile-basin for same object 60

12. —Line of saturation between drains 66

IS.—Horse-shoe tile 78

14. —Sole-tile 80

15. —Double-sole-tile 80

16. —Round tile (or pipe) and collar 81

Three profiles of drains with different inclinations 92

20. —Map with drains and contour lines 98

21. —Profile of Drain O 106

22. —Set of tools, (from Drainage des Terres Arables) 114

23. —Outlet secured with masonry and grating, (from the same) 118

24. —Silt-basin, built to the surface 121

25. —Finishing spade 123

26. — " scoop 123

27. —Bracing the sides of drains in soft land 124

28. —Measuring staff 124

29. —Boning-Rod 125

30.—Position of workman, and use of scoop, (from Drainage des Terres

Arables) 126

SI.—Use of Boning-Rods 126

32. —Tile-pick 131

33. —Lateral drain entering at top of main 134

34.—Sectional view of joint 134

35.—Square, brick silt-basin 135

36. —Silt-basin of vitrified pipe 134

37. —Tile Silt-basin 136

38. —Maul for ramming 138

39. —Board scraper for filling ditches 140

40. —Drain with a furrow at each, side 141

41. —Foot-pick 156

42. —Pug-Mlll 179

43.—Plate of dies 180

44. —Cheap wooden machine, (from Drainage des Terres Arables) 181

45. —Mandril for carrying tiles from machine, (from the same) 182

46. —Clay-kiln, (from Journal Royal Agricultural Society) 184

47. —Dyke and ditch 197

48. —Old system of house drainage, I from Report of Board of I 2M

49. —New" " "1 Health, (England). 1 !W7

50-57.—Boymon's tiles and connections 242

58-69.—Outlet grntiiiL' and outlet 245

60-64.—English dra nine lo°ls 24s

65.—Opeuing the ditch and laying the tileB 219

4

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.—LAND TO BE DRAINED, AND THE REASON WHY.

Indications of the need of draining.—Sources of water.—Objections
to too much water.—Wet sub-soil.

CHAPTER II.—HOW DRAINS ACT, AND HOW THEY AFFECT THE SOIL.

Characteristics of a well laid tile-drain.—Surface-water and rain-water
beneficial, springs and soakage-water injurious. Cracking of stiff clays.
Evaporation and filtration.—Rain-fall.—Evaporation.—Temperature.—
Drought.—Porosity or mellowness.—Chemical action in the soil.

CHAPTER III.—HOW TO GO TO WORK TO LAY OUT A SYSTEM OF DRAINS.

Amateur draining.—Maps.—Levelling instruments.—Outlets and loca-
tion of drains.—Main drains.—Spring water.—Fall.—Tiles.—Depth and
distance apart.—Direction of laterals.—Collars.—Discharge of water
from drains.

CHAPTER IV.—How To Make, The Drains.

Tools.—Marking the lines.—Water-courses.—Outlets.—Silt-Basins.—

Opening the ditches.—Grading.—Tile laying.—Connections.—Covering

the tile and filling in.—Collecting the water of springs.—Amending the

map.

CHAPTER V.—How To Take Care Of Drains And Drained Land.

Removing obstructions.—Mistake of substituting large tiles for small
ones which have become obstructed.—Heavy lands should not be tram-
pled while wet.

CHAPTER VI.—WHAT DRAINING COSTS.

Draining, expensive work.—Permanence and lasting effects.—Cheap-

ness versus economy. — Details of cost. — (1. Engineering and Su-

perintendence.— 2. Digging the ditches.—3. Grading the bottoms.—

4. Tiles and tile laying.—5. Covering and filling.—6. Outlets and Silt-

Basins.)

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