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iwo points is 3.3-1.9=1.4; if of the space must be given to the even foot between the lines, and the 2-foot line should be is of the space above the point 1.9;—the 3-foot line will then come è below the point 3.3. In the same manner, the line from 3.3 to 5.1 is divided into 18 parts, of which 10 go to the space between the 4. and 5. lines, 7 are between 3.3 and the 4-foot line, and 1 between the 5-foot line and 5.1.
With these maps, made from observations taken in the field, we are prepared to lay down, on paper, our system of drainage, and to mature a plan which shall do the necessary work with the least expenditure of labor and material. The more thoroughly this plan is considered, the more economical and effective will be the work. Having already obtained the needed information, and having it al., before us, we can determine exactly the location and size of each drain, and arrange, before hand, for a rapid and satisfactory execution of the work. The only thing that may interfere with the perfect application of the plan, is the presence of masses of underground rock, within the depth to which the drains are to be laid.* Where these are supposed to exist, soundings should be made, by driving a 3-inch pointed steel rod to the rock, or to a depth of five feet where the rock falls away. By this means, measuring the distance from the soundings to the ranges of the stakes, we can denote on the map the shape and depth of sunken rocks. The shaded spot on the east side of the map, (Fig. 8,) indicates a rock three feet from the surface, which will be assumed to have been explored by sounding.
In most cases, it will be sufficient to have contour lines taken only at intervals of two feet, and, owing to the smallness of the scale on which these maps are engraved, and to avoid complication in the finished plan, where so
* The slight deviations caused by carrying the drains around largo stones, which are found in cutting the ditches, do not affect the general arrangement of the lines,
much else must be shown, each alternate line is omitted. Of course, where drains are at once staked out on the land, by a practiced engineer, no contour lines are taken, as by the aid of the level and rod for the flatter portions, and by the eye alone for the steeper slopes, he will be able at once to strike the proper locations and directions; but for one of less experience, who desires to thoroughly mature his plan before commencing, they are indispensable; and their introduction here will enable the novice to understand, more clearly than would otherwise be possible, the principles on which the plan should be made.
Fig. 9.—THE CLINOMETER. For preliminary examinations, and for all purposes in which great accuracy is not required, the little instrument shown in Fig. 9,—the Clinometer,-is exceedingly simple and convenient. Its essential parts are a flat side, or base, on which it stands, and a hollow disk just half filled with some heavy liquid. The glass face of the disk is surrounded by a graduated scale that marks the angle at which the surface of the liquid stands, with reference to the flat base. The line 0.
4 0 . being parallel to the base, when the liquid stands on that line, the flat side is horizontal; the line 90. - 90. being perpendicular to
the base, when the liquid stands on that line, the flat side is perpendicular or plumb. In like manner, the intervening angles are marked, and, by the aid of the following tables, the instrument indicates the rate of fall per hundred feet of horizontal measurement, and per hundred feet measured upon the sloping line.*
Table No. 1 shows the rise of the slope for 100 feet of the horizontal measurement. Example: If the horizontal distance is 100 feet, and the slope is at an angle of 10°, the rise will be 17333 feet.
Table No. 2 shows the rise of the siope for 100 feet of its own length. If the sloping line, (at an angle of 15°,) is 100 feet long, it rises 25.882 feet. TABLE No. 1.
TABLE No. 2. DEG. FEET. DEG.
|| DEG. FEET. IDEG. FEET.
8.749 17.633 26.795 36.397 46,631 57.735 70.021 83.910
119.175 142.815 173.205 214.451 274.748 373.205 567.128 1143.01
8.716 17.365 25.882 34.202 42.262 50.57.358 64.279 70.711
81.915 86.602 90.631 93.969 96.593 98.481 99.619
With the maps before him, showing the surface features of the field, and the position of the under-ground rock, the drainer will have to consider the following points :
1. Where, and at what depth, shall the outlet be placed ?
2. What shall be the location, the length and the depth of the main drain ?
3. What subsidiary mains,—or collecting drains,-shall connect the minor valleys with the main ?
4. What may best be done to collect the water of large springs and carry it away ?
5. What provision is necessary to collect the water that flows over the surface of out-cropping rock, or
* The form of this instrument has been considerably improved, and its eficiency increased.—(2d edition.)
along springy lines on side hills or under banks !
6. What should be the depth, the distance apart, the direction, and the rate of fall, of the lateral drains ?
7. What kind and sizes of tile should be used to form the conduits ?
8. What provision should be made to prevent the obstruction of the drains, by an accumụlation of silt or sand, which may enter the tiles immediately after they are laid, and before the earth becomes compacted about them; and from the entrance of vermin?
1. The outlet should be at the lowest point of the boun dary, unless, (for some especial reason which does not exist in the case under consideration, nor in any usual case,) it is necessary to seek some other than the natural outfall; and it should be deep enough to take the water of the main drain, and laid on a sufficient inclination for a free flow of the water. It should, where sufficient fall can be obtained without too great cost, deliver this water over a step of at least a few inches in height, so that the action of the drain may be seen, and so that it may not be liable to be clogged by the accumulation of silt, (or mud,) in the open ditch into which it flows. • 2. The main drain should, usually, be run as nearly in
the lowest part of the principal valley as is consistent with tolerable straightness. It is better to cut across the point of a hill, to the extent of increasing the depth for a few rods, than to go a long distance out of the direct course to keep in the valley, both because of the cost of the large tile used in the main, and of the loss of fall occasioned by the lengthening of the line. The main should be continued from the outlet to the point at which it is most convenient to collect the more remote sub-mains, which bring together the water of several sets of laterals. As is the case in the tract under consideration, the depth of the main is often restricted, in nearly level land, to ward the upper end of the flat which lies next to the out