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considered we were ten meo and four women. I have alwa)s observed that the north men possessed verv hearty appetites, but they were much exceeded by those with me, iince we entered this river. I should reaJIv have thought it absolute gluttony in my people, is my own appetite had not increased in a similar proportion/'

In the return, a serious dispute took place between the author and the Indians of his party; and, in order to prevent it from growing to a quarrel, he la\s, " I sent for the English chief to sup with me; and a dram or two dispelled all his heart-burning and discontent. He informed me that it was a custom with the Chepewyan chiefs to go to war after they had Ihed tears, to wipe away the disgrace attached to such a feminine weakness."

On Saturday, September 27th, at three in the afternoon, the voyagers arrived in safety atCbepewyan-sort, whence they had commenced their progress; and " here concluded this voyage, which had occupied the considerable space of one hundred and two days."

The expedition of Mr. Mackenzie to the western coast of North America, which is now the object of our attention, was an undertaking more arduous and enterprising than even his voyage to the north. He begins his relation at Fort Chepewyan, from which place he departed in October 1792; and, proceeding along tl>e Unjigah or Peace-river, he arrived on the 1st of November, at a place called the Forks, where the river branched in two directions, one running towards the south, the otiier to tlte west. Keeping, in the western branch, the au» thoi landed a few miles beyond the

Forks, at a spot to which people had been before sent to make preparations for erecting a house; and here he fixed his residence for the winter. Fork-sort which was the name given to the place, is in latitude 56° OS' N, and longitude 117» 35' \V. from Greenwich.

The cun&ruciion of a fort, storehouses, &c. and the settlement os various matters with the Indians, furnished Mr. M. with employment. Accidents likewise obliged him to make trial os his (kill in physic and surgery; and he had the satisfaction of being fortunate in hi* practice The following is relafed among other cafes: "One of the young Indians had lost the use of his right hand by the bursting of a gun, and his thumb had been maimed in such a manner as to hang only bv a small strip of flesh. Indeed, when, he was brought to roe, hi* wound was in such an offensive state, and emitted such a putrid smell, that it required all the resolution I possessed to examine it. Hii friends had done every filing iu their power to relieve him; but as it consisted only in singing about him, and blowing upon his hand, the wound, as may well be imagined, had got into the deplorable stale in. which I found it." This cafe, at the risk of his surgical reputation, Mr. M. undertook; and the patient received benefit, and was not ungrateful.

On the 9th of May, 1793, Mr. M. departed from the fort of the Forks, in order lo prosecute his western discovery. The travelling party consisted os ten men (including himself); os which number, two had accompanied him in the former expedition, and two were Indians, intended lo serve as hunters %t* and interpreters. -The whole ,wiere embarked in one canoe, which ■was twenty-five feet long within, %nd four feet nine inches broad: at the fame time it was so light, that two men could carry it on a good Voari three or four miles withont resting. In this vessel, besides the company, were shipped provisions, ammunition, goods for presents, &c. ■lo the weight of 3000lbs. They 'fcegan the voyage against a strong current, the Unjigah-river discharging itlelf into the Slave-lake lo the north-eastward, ami the direction 'pursued by the party being towards the S. W. The country through which they had first passed, the author writes, displayed a sticcetlion of the most beautiful scenery which 'he had ever beheld: but the rapidity of the stream rendered the navigation dangerous, and extremely laborious. In one part of the river they were obliged to unload four times in the space of two miles, and to carry every thing but the canoe.


Against such obstacles, however, the perseverance of Mr. Mackenzie at length prevailed. In order to lighten the canoe, most of the party walked. "Mr. Mackay informed «ne (says the writer) that, in pasting ©ver the mountains, he observed several chasms in the earth that emitted heat and smoke, which diffused a strong sulphurous stench. I should hare visited this phenomenon, if I had been sufficiently qualified as a naturalist to have offered scientific observations thereon."

On June 12th, they reached the iiead of the Unjigah-river, at what the author believes to be its most southern source. They procured a guide in the route; and here they found a carrying place that led, at

S17 paces distance, to a small lake. whence they arrived at another river, the current of which was soon sound to take a foot hern direction. Mr. M. has supposed this to be the Columbia, or a os that rivei. In descending rim stream, the voyagers very narrows* escaped being wrecked: bat, were we to extract the paslage, or to be more particular in the description os the route, we 'mould too mnrti lengthen our account. From information which'Mr. M. acquired from the Indians with whom he met, he learned that, at some di& tance to the westward of the rive-, which they were navigating, there was another which led to the tea; "I called those of my people atvmt me," he says, " who had not been present at my consultation with the natives; and after palling a warm eulogium on their fortitude, patience, and perseverance, I stated the dik sroulties that threatened our continuing to navigate the river, the length of time it would require, aod the scanty provision we bad for such a voyage: I then proceeded for the foregoing reasons to propose a shorter route, by trying the over-land road to the sea." This proportion was zealously adopted by all.— They were obliged to remount thtJ stream, in order to regain a station more convenient for depositing such things as thev could not carry with them, than the place at which they had formed the resolution; and their canoe had sulfered so much damage, that it became necestiiry to build a new one. Thi* however, was a work of only three days. The canoe was placed under a covering of (mall trees and branches, and with it were pot many oxher things; but the provisions.

■visions and gun-powder were left in more secure hiding-places.

On July 4th, they began their journey by land. The distance to the western river was, in a straight -fine, above 100 miles: bul, by the circuitous route which thty were obliged to take, the length of their march was much increased. They procured guides from among the Datives, and travelled in frequented paths, but heavy laden, with their arms, provisions, and other baggage. *' Each of the Canadians had a burden of about ninety pounds, with a gun and some ammunition.'"'

In this part of the journey, the natives were comparatively numerous.—We insert the following paragraph, which here occurs, because it communicates information which may be of essential service to distressed travellers:—" We proceeded on our journey accompanied by the Indian and his two sons. As I did not want the younger, and sliou'd be obliged to feed him, I requested of his father to leave him, for the porpole of fishing for the women. He replied, that they were accustomed to fisti for themlelves, and that I need not be apprehensive of their encroaching upon my provisions, as thev were used to sustain themselves in l heir journeys on herbs, and the inner tegument of the baric pt trees, for the stripping of which he had a thin piece ot.bone, then banging by his tide. The latter is of a glutinous quality, ofa clammy* sweet (asle, and is generally considered bv the more interior Indians as a delicacy, rather than an article of common food."

When the tmvcllers arrived at the Western river, she first habitations which they law belonged to Indians of a tribe which do not eat

flesh. The guide;-having gone besore, had-prepared sorthe travettWs a friendly reception-/'1

The language of these Indian* was totally different from unv which theautrrnr had belore heard. After having made presents to tlieirhoft, who had provided for them two canoes, the travellers embarked, accompanied by seven of the native*. "I had imagined," fays Mr. Mi ". that the Canadians were the mnft expert canoe men in the world, birl they acknowledged themselves inferior to these people in conducting those vessels."

During the remainder of the passage towards the sea, the vovagen were kepi in a state os contiant apprehension, and were frequently in situations from which it required the utmost exertions of their vigilence and resolution to extricate themselves. At a place which Mr. M. has distinguished by the appellation of the Friendly Village, the circumstances of their entertainment were not at first of the most encouragingkind-. . ' '*

The travellers remained all night at this village; and soon aster they had retired lo rest, the chief came to Mr. M. and requested him to accept his bed-companion: but, notwithstanding repeated intreaties on. the part of the chief, this offering of h'lfpilality was not accepted.

From the Friendly Village, the travellers were furnished with another canoe, and proceeded with the' stream towards the fen. At one houle where thev flopped, some of the women were employed in beating and preparing the inner rind of the cellar bark, to-which thev give the appearance of flax. Others were (pinning with a distaff and spindle. One of them was weaving' a robe os this substance, intermixed •with stripes os (he sea-otter skin-, oti a frame of adequate contrivance, which was placed against the side os llie house. The men were (idling with drag-nets between two canoes. ■•—After this account of their employments, many readers, we apprehend, will have a more respectful opinion of the state of the art* and manufactures among the natives ef North America, than they have been accustomed to entertain.

On July the 2Gti, Mr. M. and his companions arrived at an arm of the lea; and on the 21st they were near a cape which was seen by captain Vancouver, and by hint named Cape Menaies, the arm of the sea being that which he has called the Cascade-Canal. This was the farthest of their progress to the wests and al this station, the latitude was .VJ° 21' N. and the longitude, calculated from the mean of two emersions ef Jupiter's satellites, 128" 02' W. which is something more west than cape Merizies is placed in the chart of captain Vancouver.

In the night of the 22d of Ju»y they began their voyage of return, the particulars of which afford much amusement; and they once more arrived at fort Chepewyan, on the 24th of August.

We liave been less circumstantial in our remarks on the relation of this voyage, than on the expedition, to the Northern sea: but it may neverthefess be remarked that the account of the voyage to tlwj west coast is a work of greater entertainment and interest than could have Been furnished by that which waa directed to the north. Each has its diliinCt utility: the northern, in -corroborating, arid we may fay in com

pleting, the evidence that there Ax* not exist a navigable passage by fe* to the north or America; ami tbe western, in proving the practicability of commercial intercourse fhrongh the continent between the eojEWn and western coasts. ' *•

Mr. M. has drawn i*p some ttfUf observations cooceffirnff the geog>ra>phy, the climate, ami the fur-trade of North America ; which are inserted ttt the latter part of hi* volume, and^ serve as an appendix to the voyage*. In his remarks on tfrf* geography, he considers both the political dtv{trbnsy and Ihofe which have been formed by ruitare. The climate, it i« stated, is much more severe on the eastern than on the western coast; which the author attributes to lite former being exposed to the northwest winds that blow from the Frofteft-sea.—The following passige afi lords matter for reflection: bat we will not undertake to determine whether or not it is founded on a siulicient length ol" experience.

"It has been frequently advanced, that the difference of clearing away the wood has had aw astonishing influence in meliorating the climate: but I am not disposed toaflent to that opinion in the extent which it proposes to establish, when I con» sider the very trifling proportion ot the country cleared, compared wkll the whole, The employment of the axe may have had some inconsiderable effect i bat I look to other causea, I my self observed inatouMti-, rvhieh was in an absolute ctaU^of nature, that the climate is improving; and this circumstance was confirmed to me by the native inhabitants of it. Such a change, therefore, most proceed from some predominating operation in the system of the globe which is beyond my ««r>jectu re. and,


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