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thirty to seventy-five cents per pound, if sent to market in their fresh, half-ripened husk; but later on, when the nuts have fallen out and become thoroughly ripened, as when imported, ten cents a pound may be considered an average price for the larger varieties. Several of these are shown in Fig. 41, of natural size and form. Another extra-large hazel is shown in Fig. 42. The fifth year after planting, my specimen filbert orchard had suffered so much from blight that it appeared as shown in Fig. 43; but a few dozen trees have been reserved, the rest being removed and reduced to ashes.
Name and Nature of the Filbert Blight.--The reader must not suppose that one who has spent as much time and money as the writer in experimenting with these nuts, would make no effort to discover the origin and name of such a virulent disease, and means of destroying it if these were known. For many years I had been well aware of its presence in nearly all of the nurseries of the older States, as well as in the public parks and private gardens. In the meantime I had diligently examined the reports of the Division of Vegetable Pathology of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, as well as the hundreds of bulletins of the various State experiment stations, treating of the fungous diseases of plants, all without finding a hint or reference to this widely distributed and destructive blight of the filbert. I also sent many specimens of the diseased twigs and branches to professional mycologists, with no better results. With the nature of the disease, its mode of multiplication and distribution, I had become somewhat familiar, but the information sought was: Had it ever been described and given a scientific name, and if so, where, and by whom? This much of its history had somehow escaped me, and, as it would appear from the following correspondence, the chances were none too good of finding it.
In reply to an inquiry directed to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Vegetable Pathology, I received the following:
WASHINGTON, D. C., Aug. 4. 1894. DEAR SIR:
Your letter of Aug. 2, relating to the disease of the filbert, is at hand. In reply I have to say that we have not investigated this trouble, and are therefore unable to furnish you with any definite information upon it. Specimens of the disease, as you describe it, have never been, so far as I know, referred to the Division, nor am I able to find any record of any such disease in foreign or domestic literature. If you will send us specimens we shall be pleased to examine them and furnish you a report. We should also be pleased to have any information from you in regard to the manner in which the disease works.
Very truly, B. T. GALLOWAY, Chief of Division. The specimens requested were forwarded promptly oy mail, and in the absence of the Chief of Division, they fell into the hands of one of his assistants, who reported as follows:
WASHINGTON, D. C., Aug. 14, 1894. DEAR SIR:
Your letter of Aug. 7 is received, together with the speci. mens. The stems of the Corylus are affected with one of the Pyrenomycetes. Cryptospora anomala, Pk. The fungus is described in “North American Pyrenomycetes,” by Ellis and Everbart, p. 531. It attacks Corylus Americana, but appears to be worst on the European varieties, as you say. The pustules appear first on the young branches, and later on the older ones and on the trunk. The roots are not killed.
The only remedy known is to cut out and burn the dis- . eased stems. Whether Bordeaux mixture or any other copper solution will protect the shrub from attack, is not known. So far as I know, it has not been tried. It is probable, however, that if the stems were thoroughly spraved with the Bordeaux mixture they would be protected from attack. The mycelium of the fungus grows into the cambium and practically girdles the stems. The black pustules contain the spores.
Very truly yours,
On the receipt of this note of Prof. Woods, I looked up Ellis and Everhart's work, a voluminous one of over 800 octavo pages, published by the authors at Newfield, N. J. This filbert blight is briefly described under the scientific name of Cryptospora anomala, Pk., but Prof. Peck writes me that “the description was made from specimens discovered near Albany, N. Y., in May, 1874. In 1882 this description was republished by Saccardo, in his “Syllage Fungorum,” Vol. I, p. 470, under the name of Cryptosporella anomala. The original name in Report 28, p. 72, was Diatrype anomala. In 1892 Ellis and Everhart, in “Pyrenomycetes of North America,” p. 531, changed the name again, making it Cryptospora anomala.” So at present we have the names of this fungus in the following order :
Diatrypes anomal, Peck, 1876.
Ellis and Everhart, after giving scientific description, add, “On living stems of Corylus Americana, Albany, N. Y. (Peck), Iowa (Holoway), on Corylus Avellana, Newfield, N. J. The pustules appear first on the smaller branches, and are serrately arranged along one side of the branch; afterwards they appear also on the larger branches and on the trunk itself, and in the course of two or three years the part of tree above ground is entirely killed. The roots, however, still retain their vitality, and continue to send up each year a luxuriant growth of new shoots, destined to be destroyed the succeeding year by the inexorable pest. The imported trees seem to be more injuriously affected than the native species."
The observations of Ellis and Everhart and Prof. Woods accord with my own, but I may say that the infested branches often show the presence of the mycelium in the bark and alburnum,-by a slight shrinking,