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half black walnuts, — the true hybrid being only reproduced by grafting on a thrifty young Juglans Californica.
“Another handsome novelty in shade trees, is a hybrid from the Juglans nigra, or wellknown Eastern black walnut, and J. Californica (Figs. 78 and 79). It makes a charming ornamental tree, and bears, in its season, a prolific crop of unusually large nuts, which have little value except in the eyes of school children. Several of these hybrids are growing in Santa Rosa, and present an interesting study to the pomologist.
“A still more unique species of the walnut genus is the Juglans Sieboldiana, a Japanese walnut which grows abundantly in the mountainous districts of the island of Yesso, and also in the more southern divisions of the empire. Several of these remarkable trees are to be found in the FIG. 80. JUGLANS SIEBOLDIANA RACEME. Kew gardens, but only one specimen is said to be grow.
ing in America, and this has recently come into profuse bearing on the Burbank experimental farm, eight miles from Santa Rosa, California. According to good authority, this Japanese walnut not only attains its greatest perfection in this favored climate, but it thrives equally well in countries too cold for the common walnut, J. regia. In its wild state in Japan, the Juglans Sieboldiana (whose curious raceme of nuts is shown in Fig. 80) makes a wide-spreading tree about fifty feet in bight, with pale, furrowed bark; nuts an inch and a half long, with a diameter one-third less, and a kernel
having much the flavor of the common walnut. The tree bearing so thriftily on California soil, suggests its possible value as a marketable nut, while it already furnishes a remarkable addition to horticultural interests."
JUGLANS NIGRA, Linn. Black
Walnut.-Leaflets FIG. 81. BLACK WALNUT IN HUSK. eleven to seventeen, rarely more; ovate-lanceolate, smooth above, moderately pubescent beneath, pointed, somewhat heart-shaped at the base ; leafstalks slightly downy, usually of a pale purplish color early in the season, especially on young trees; fruit large, mostly globose (Fig. 81); husk thin, roughly dotted ; shell thick, hard, deeply and unevenly corrugated with rough, sharp ridges and points (Fig. 82); kernel large, sweet, but usually with a strong, rather rank taste, but less oily than the butternut
Trees grow to an immense size, with deeply furrowed bark; wood dark colored, valuable for cabinet work, inside finishing, gun stocks, etc. Common in deep, rich soils, from western Massachusetts west to southern Minnesota, and southward to Florida. Most abundant west of the Alleghany mountains, and especially in the rich valleys of the Western States distant from railroads and water communication ; elsewhere the trees have long since been cut for their timber. I have only one synonym to record, and this is scarcely worthy of notice, viz. : Wallia nigra. (Alefeld in “Bonplandia,” 1861.)
Varieties of the Black Walnut.-As with the butternut, there are no varieties of the black walnut in cultivation; at least, FIG. 82. JUGLANS NIGRA, HUSK none propagated by means which will insure the perpetuation of their varietal characteristics. It is true that there are plenty of wild varieties to be found, these varying widely in size and form, and somewhat in thickness of their shell, as well as the ease with which the kernels may be extracted, but none of these have been perpetuated by artificial means. Among the earliest varieties recognized by botanists, one was called Oblong Black Walnut, Juglans nigra oblonga, by Miller, 1754, and perhaps in earlier editions of the “Gardener's Dictionary.” He says this is from Virginia, and only a variety of the common black walnut. Marshall, in 1785, describes this “black oblong fruited walnut,” and adds: “There are, perhaps, some other varieties.” These oblong, or, more correctly speaking, oval nuts, often sharp-pointed at both ends,
are rather plentiful at this time. There are rarely any considerable number of bushels reaching market from Virginia and adjacent States, among which these oval or oblong nuts cannot be found. I have a number before me measuring from one inch to one and a quarter in diameter, and from one and a half to nearly two inches in length. Other varieties found, perhaps, in the same lot, are broader than long, or one and seven-eighths inches broad, by one and one-half in vertical diameter. These measurements are of the cleaned shell, after the husks have been removed.
For several years a “thin-shelled black walnut” has been offered by at least two nurserymen, in whose catalogues they are described as “with unusually thin shells, the kernels coming out whole.” I have endeavored to ascertain the origin of this variety, but failed, for both of the nursery firms who advertised the trees for sale admit that they do not know from whom they obtained the nuts planted, or where the original tree is growing. As the trees offered are only seedlings, there is no certainty that they will produce nuts with “thin shells." We can safely drop this supposed variety from the list until something definite is known about it.
JUGLANS CALIFORNICA, Watson. California Walmut.-Leaflets in from five to eight pairs, more or less downy, but sometimes smooth, oblong-lanceolate, sharppointed, narrowing upward from near the base, two to two and a half inches long. Male catkins much larger than in our Eastern species, or from four to eight inches, often in pairs. Fruit round, slightly compressed, threefourths to one inch and a quarter in diameter ; husk thin, slightly dotted or roughened; shell dark brown, very faintly sculptured (Fig. 83), almost smooth, thick, the kernel filling two broad cavities upon each side; edi. ble and fairly good. A tree or large shrub in the vicinity of San Francisco and along the Sacramento (where
it is sometimes cultivated), growing to the hight of forty to sixty feet, and two to four feet in diameter; ranging southward to Santa Barbara, and eastward through southern Arizona to New Mexico and Sonora (Thurber, “Botany of California"). This species has been considered by some botanists as only a variety of the next, or Juglans rupestris, var. Major, Torrey. Scarcely hardy in the latitude of New York city, except an occasional seedling from nuts gathered along the northern limits of the species, or from the cooler elevated regions of the Pacific slope. It is of no special value, only adding one more edible nut tree to the list.
JUGLANS CALIFORNICA. JUGLANS RUPESTRIS, Engelmann. Texas Walnut. New Mexico Walnut.—Leaflets thirteen to twenty-five, smooth, bright green, small, narrow, and long-pointed; male catkins short, or about two inches long, and quite
slender; fruit round or oblate; husk thin, nearly smooth ; nut small, onehalf to three-fourths of an inch in diameter; shell very thick, rather deeply furrowed, the narrow grooves on the greater part continuous from base
to apex, the broad edges of the ridges TOGLANG smooth, not jagged as in the butternut RUPESTRIS, SHOW- and black walnut. Kernel sweet and ING SMALL KERNEL• good, but so small (Fig. 84) as not to be worth the trouble of extracting. A small and neat tree twenty to forty feet high, native of the bottom lands of the Colorado in Texas, and throughout the western part of the State, extending through southern and central New Mexico to Arizona. In New Mexico it reaches an elevation of seven or eight thousand feet, though the climate is often severe, the temperature dropping to zero