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packed in dry sand or soil, until the approach of steady cold weather, and then plant. Having lost choice kinds of note from being in too great haste in getting them into the ground in the fall, I am prompted to give this warning to those who have had no experience in raising nut trees. If not convenient to plant in the fall, nuts of all kinds may be packed in barrels, boxes, or similar vessels, mixed with or stratified with sharp sand or light soil, then stored in a dry, cool place,-a very cool cellar will answer, but in my experience, out of doors is preferable, and in the shade of some evergreen tree or on the north side of a building, and there banked over with earth just sufficient to keep the nuts at an equably low temperature. It is advisable to have a few small holes in the bottom of the barrels or boxes, to insure proper drainage, should any considerable amount of water get in at the top; but this will not occur if the vessels are properly covered with boards when placed in position for winter.
It must also be kept in mind that mice, squirrels and chipmunks are fond of almonds and other kinds of edible nuts, and if placed where these little rodents can find them, they are sure to take a share, or perhaps the entire store, before their visits are discovered. I have known field mice to dig down under boxes of nuts, enlarge the holes left for drainage, and spend the winter among the chestnuts which I had put away for planting in spring. The safest way is to place fine wire netting on the bottom of the box, and then cover it with the same. Owing to the abundance of mice and other little put-eating animals, I have never dared to plant out nuts in the fall, and so have always stored them in sand, but out of doors during the winter, and well covered with carth. In other lacalities it may be safe to sow in autumn, and if protection from vermin is required, coat the nuts with gas tar, the same as practiced by farmers in protecting seed corn against the attacks of crows and other corn-pulling birds. One pint of warm. tar will be sufficient for a bushel of nuts, and the application is readily made by placing the nuts in a barrel, pouring the tar on them, and stirring with a stick until every nut is coated. To prevent the tar sticking to the hands in planting, dust the nuts with dry wood ashes, land plaster, or fine dry sand.
If peach stones are to be planted for "stocks they may be put into the ground as soon as ready in autumn, because they are rarely disturbed by vermin; or if more convenient, mix with common soil, and in heaps, in the open ground, and leave in this position until "spring, then pick out as they begin to sprout, and plant. The hạrd-shelled almond may be treated in the same way, only they are not to be handled quite as roughly as peach stones, and for protection it is best to put them in barrels or boxes, as described above. . . . .
When ready for planting take out the nuts and drop them in shallow drills, one every ten or twelve inches, then cover with about two inches of soil. It is to be supposed, of course, that a seed bed has been prepared, by thorough working over and enriching, if necessary, in advance of planting. The distance between the drills or rows should be sufficient to admit of cultivating the plants with a horse or mule, and cultivator, during the summer, and if this is done and the soil stirred often enough to keep down all weeds, the stocks should become large enough to admit of budding the first season ; if not, then this operation must be deferred until the following year. But in case the seedlings are raised from choice varieties and to be left in their natural condition for fruiting, they may be lifted when one or two seasons old and set where they are to remain permanently... ::
The Season for Budding - So much depends upon climate, location, and variation of seasons, that no
special date or time can be given for budding trees of any kind, but it is always to be done while the stocks are in active growth, because the bark must part freely from the wood underneath, in order to admit of inserting the bud under it. If the buds are set too early in the season there is danger of a premature growth; that is, of pushing out a shoot in the fall instead of remaining dormant until the following spring. Under certain conditions, however, and for special purposes, it may be advisable to force the buds as soon as they have formed a union with the stock, but as a rule, in the propagation of hardy and half-hardy trees, it is better to keep the buds dormant during the cool or cold winter months.
Here in the Northern States we usually begin to look over our stocks during the latter part of July or first week in August, and note their progress and condition. Should they show the least signs of cessation of growth, we begin budding them, and push the work as rapidly as possible. If the season is a wet one the stocks may continue to grow and remain in good condition for budding until the middle of September ; but in a dry season they may cease to grow in August, and it is these variable conditions which gives to the close observer and man of experience such an advantage over the novice in the propagation of plants. It is better to begin budding too early than to be a few days too late.
The operation called budding consists in taking a bud, with a small portion of the bark adjoining, from one plant, and inserting it in another, or in some other part of the same plant from which it was taken. The physiological principles which govern the operation are, that there must exist an affinity between the plant from which the bud is taken and the one upon which it is to be placed, and the nearer the relationship the more readily will it unite and the more perfect the union. For instance, the cultivated peach and almond are supposed to be of the same origin, and descendants of one original species; consequently there is a close relationship between the varieties of both sections, and their seedlings may be employed indiscriminately for stocks. The next nearest relatives in the family line are the plums (Prunus), some of which answer very well as stocks for the almond, although very rarely used for
FIG. 2. BUDDING KNIFE. this purpose. The next group in the line of botanical relationship are the cherries (Prunus cerasus), but these are too far removed to be employed as stocks for either the peach or almond.
For budding are necessary a small knife for preparing the buds for insertion and making an incision in the bark of the stock to admit them; and a quantity of some material to tie around the stock, so as to hold the
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FIG. 3. YANKEE BUDDING KNIFE. bud in place. Budding knives are made after various patterns; one that is commonly used has an ivory or bone handle, made very thin at the end, that is used to peel the bark from the stock where the bud is to be inserted (Fig. 2). Another form of budding knife is made with a horn handle, and a small tapering piece of ivory fastened in the end. These knives, of various shapes and sizes, can be had at the seed stores; but another and quite a different form of budding knife is shown in Fig. 3, and is known as the “Yankee budding knife.” It is merely a small one-bladed pocket knife with a thin blade, round at the end. The cutting portion extends about one-third around the end of the blade and twothirds of its length, leaving the lower part dull. Although this form of budding knife has been in constant use in some of the older nurseries in this country for nearly a century, it does not appear to have been manufactured for the general trade, but only on special orders for nurserymen. It is so simple a knife, however, that with a little grinding almost any small one-bladed pocket knife can be transformed into one of these handy bud. ding knives. The rounded end of the blade is used for lifting the bark, and for rapid work it is far more convenient than any form of knife that must be reversed in the hand every time a bud is inserted. In addition, a polished bit of steel is smoother and far less likely to lacerate the alburnous matter between the bark and wood than the best piece of bone or ivory. It may be said, however, that it is immaterial what form of knife is employed, provided it has a keen edge and is dexterously used.
The material most commonly used in times past for tying in the bud is the inner bark of the linden or bass. wood tree, usually called bass, and always to be procured in the form of mats, or as prepared from our indigenous basswoods and kept on sale at the seed stores. Recently, however, another excellent tying material has come into use, known in the trade as raffia or roffia. It is the cuticle of the Jupati palms. One species (Raphia tædigera) is a native of the lower valley of the Amazon and Orinoco, and another (R. Ruffia) of Madagascar and adjacent islands. Raffia is somewhat softer and more pliable than the ordinary bass, although it does not hold its form quite as well ; but it is so cheap, soft and strong, that it has become very popular, and is extensively used for budding and many other purposes. But if none of