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of these have ever been cultivated in our Eastern States, consequently little is known of their value here; but more may be in the near future, when our horticulturists and farmers begin to plant nut trees as freely as they have other kinds, or are awakened to the fact that such trees can be made a source of pleasure and profit.
Here in the Northern States our main dependence for hardy and productive trees of this species will be upon seedlings or cions from those acclimated specimens which have already been thoroughly tested and found to be both hardy and prolific. There are plenty of these, as I have stated elsewhere, and they are well worthy of attention and multiplication until something better is produced or discovered. In the meantime, the most promising European varieties could be imported and tested, although it is not probable that those originating in southern France and Italy would be of much value for planting in the latitude of New York city or north of it, but south of this line the chances of success would be somewhat greater; and to escape injury from late spring frosts, the more elevated regions are preferable to the lower and warmer anywhere in the Southern States. In anticipation of the question being asked, I will say that, at present, I do not know of any nurseryman in the Eastern States who propagates or imports named varieties of walnuts for sale. Of course, seedlings of these are offered, but it is well known that there is but a remote chance of these coming true from seed. Even the little dwarf French walnut Præparturiens, or Early Prolific, cannot be depended upon to produce dwarf or early bearing trees beyond the first generation from the nut, and these must be the product of grafted trees, to insure this much. The following list contains the names of only a few of the most noted varieties, the greater part having originated in Europe.
AILANTUS-LEAVED WALNUT. See Oriental walnuts.
BARTHERE WALNUTS. See Fig. 88.-A very long nut, pointed at both ends. Shell thin; kernel large and
of excellent fla-
FIG. 88. BARTHERE WALNUT. seedlings of this variety begin to bear very early.
CHA BERTE.— An old standard French variety, of an oval shape; medium size, with very full and rich flavored kernel (Fig. 89). The FIG. 90. CHILE WALNUT. tree buds and blooms late, therefore especially valuable in localities where late spring frosts are likely to occur.
CHILE WALNUT.—This name is given, in a general way, to all the walnuts received in our markets from
South America. The nuts are usually of good size, with a dark grayish shell; thin but firm, with plump kernels of excellent flavor. These nuts arrive in February and March. Many of the Chile walnuts have three valves (Fig. 90), instead of the normal two. Such freaks are occasionally found among the European varieties, also in the native hickories, but these tri-valved nuts appear to be very abundant among the Chile walnuts.
CLUSTER WALNUT. RACEMOSA OR SPICATA.-Described by Mr. Gillet as a variety of the Persian walnut, producing medium, thin-shelled nuts in long clusters of from eight to twenty-eight. He also says that he introduced it into this country, but from whence we are not informed. Lavellée (1877) records it as a variety of J. regia, under the name of racemosa, giving its synonym. as Juglans Californica of the horticulturists.
the horticulturists. I have not found it
CUT-LEAVED K WALNUT.-A variety with deeply cut 1 leaves; very orna mental, as seen in FIG. 91. CUT-LEAVED WALNUT. Fig. 91. Nuts quite small, but of good quality.
FRANQUETTE. —Another old standard French variety, with large, elongated-oval nuts with a distinct point. Shell thin; kernel large, and of rich flavor. The tree blooms late; valuable for planting in the South
GANT OR BIJOU WALNUT.-A remarkable variety on account of its extraordinary size. The shell is thin, with rather deep furrows, those of the largest size being made into ladies' companions, where to stow away gloves or handkerchiefs, hence the name “Gant” walnut. The kernel, though, does not correspond to the size of the shell (Gillet).
GIBBOUS WALNUT (Fig. 92).—This is a very large variety, supposed to be a hybrid, raised in France many years ago. It is of little value, as the shell is very thick
and kernel small. Valuable mainly for its immense size. .
KAGHAZI.This is supposed to be a variety of the Persian walnut, of fair size, with a very thin shell. The tree blooms very late in spring, and for this reason is recommended for localities where there is danger from injury by
frost. The tree is FIG. 92. GIBBOUS WALNUT. said to be a very rapid grower, and much more hardy than the general run of varieties of this species. I have been unable to learn its origin, but it has been planted quite extensively in California, and some of our Eastern nurserymen are offering the seedling trees for sale, but whether they will possess the merits of the original or not must be determined by experience.
LARGE-FRUITED PREPARTURIENS.—A sub-variety of the Præparturiens, originating with Mr. Felix Gillet of California.
LATE PREPARTURIENS.-Also originated with Mr. Gillet. Valuable because the trees bloom late in spring. Nuts described as of medium size, but with full kernels of excellent quality.
MAYETTE.–Very large (Fig. 93), with a light-colored shell of moderate thickness. Kernel plump, read. ily extracted whole, as shown in Fig. 94, sweet, and a
FIG. 93. MAYETTE.
'IG. 94. KERNEL OF WALNUT. rich, nutty flavor. Tree blooms late and is very productive. An old and standard French variety.
MESANGE OR PAPER-SHELL.—This nut has the thinnest shell of any variety known; it derives its name
FIG. 95. J. REGIA OCTOGONA. FIG. 96. CROSS SECTION. of Mesange from a little lark of that name, that goes to the kernel through the tender shell. Tree very productive, and the kernel quite rich in oil. We do not, however, recommend the growing of this variety for market, on account of the thinness of the shell, which breaks off