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as a larger and larger proportion of the girls who complete the highschool work are going to college. When our committee shall have completed its work and shall have shown that, from the standpoint of thought content and disciplinary value, work in household arts is as valuable as Latin, Greek, or mathematics, then perhaps entrance credit will be granted in eastern women's colleges (none of which now grant such credit), and the girls will then be able to take a larger proportion of work that shall prepare them for that sphere in life that most of them are destined to fill. Those who go no further than the high school, those who wish to specialize in household arts, and those who are planning to take up a quite different subject afterwards are advised to take the five units.
Only in a general way have we outlined the courses in household arts. During the next few years it shall be the duty of the committee to make these more detailed and to indicate how other subjects in the curriculum may be correlated with them. The preparation of a bibliography should also form a part of the work of the committee.
Amy Louise Daniels, Chairman.
University or Missouri, Columbia, Mo.
The other members of the committee on household arts are as follows:
Sarah Louise Arnold, dean of Simmons College, Boston, Mass. Josephine Berry, State Agricultural College, Pullman, Wash. Mrs. Henrietta Calvin, Oregon State Agricultural College, Corvallis. Oreg. Nellie Crooks, Milwaukee-Downer College, Milwaukee, Wis. Edna Day, department of home economics, University of Kansas, Lawrence. Kans.
Lilla Frick, supervisor of domestic science, Minneapolis, Minn. Charlotte Greer, Technical High School, Cleveland, Ohio. Elizabeth L. Kelly, State supervisor of home economics, Baton Rouge, La. Helen Kinne, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. Abby L Marlatt, home economics department. University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Elizabeth Matthews, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Helena Plncomb, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111.
Jennie Snow, Chicago Normal School, Chicago, 111.
Mary Snow, supervisor of domestic science, public schools, Chicago, TIL
Florence Willard, Washington Irving High School, New York, N. Y.
STATEMENT OF CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE ON
Since the appointment of the committee on manual arts, its most important work has been to reach general agreement as to the most fruitful subjects for investigation and report. From the correspondence and from a conference of a majority of the members held early in May, it has become clear that questions relating to the place of manual arts in secondary education are inextricably interwoven with those concerning the place of the secondary school in the general plan of public education. That the function of the secondary school is in process of rapid evolution is apparent, and the relation of manual arts instruction to this new secondary school which is in the making is not altogether easy to determine.
This committee finds itself in substantial agreement with the views expressed at the general conference of members of the various committees held in Philadelphia in 1913. It believes that all high-school subjects should be given with a much clearer conception of the provisional destination of the pupil, or at least with a fuller knowledge of his educational program, with a consequent increase in definiteness of purpose. It is held that the discovery of aptitudes is a legitimate and important aim for a certain group of pupils. Especially does the committee feel that a clearly stated differentiation of purpose is not only the highest expression of democracy in education, but that it is essential to the very existence of the public-school system, assuring as it will the constant and ever-increasing interest of the public in things educational.
Instruction in any of the manual arts, therefore, in the opinion of this committee, if given for a purpose which is reasonable and clearly stated, will be as necessary a part of secondary education and will be as fully and freely recognized as such as any other subject in the curriculum, no matter how strongly buttressed by tradition that subject may be. Conversely any course in manual arts which is offered without a clearly defined and simply stated purpose is held to be intolerable.
Furthermore, if regard is to be had to the "destination " of the pupil, numerous questions at once arise as to the possibility of adjusting school work to what is to be encountered at the end of the course. In the past the chief questions of articulation have been those which concerned jointly the high school and the college, but to-day direct articulation is made also with vocational life. Thus vocational guidance and training are coming to be of prime importance to the great majority of high-school pupils, and consequently factors to be taken into account in any solution of the problems before the committee.
The committee has been practically unanimous in its determination to urge upon the general conference the consideration of a revised basis for admitting pupils to the secondary school. Teachers of manual arts were perhaps among the first to observe that over-age children in the upper grammar grades were not necessarily deficient in intelligence, but, rather, were different in certain important char- acteristics from those whom we have chosen to term their more fortunate fellows. Such teachers have frequently insisted that it was a mistake not to care for children of this type in the secondary school instead of holding them back among children of less mature interests and ambitions. The committee will, therefore, seek to bring about a different basis of admission to secondary schools. While not suggesting that this standard be adopted for all subjects taught in the high school, it insists that courses in manual arts should be open to certain children on the ground that they have the ability to do the work of these courses acceptably.
Following the plan suggested at the conference at Philadelphia, this committee submits its preliminary report under the following heads: (1) Tentative conclusions. (2) Problems for discussion. (3) Experiments to be made.
The committee agrees unanimously to the following:
1. The major purpose of instruction in manual arts is to contribute directly to the vocational efficiency of the pupils. 2. There should be developed shorter courses with longer school days and a longer school year and with specific vocational purposes. Short vocational courses should be made available for pupils of secondary-school age who can profit measurably by the instruction given, even when such pupils have not fulfilled all the requirements for graduation from the elementary school. 3. There must be an earlier opportunity for differentiation of purposes, courses, and methods.
PROBLEMS FOR DISCUSSION.
1. Is college preparation one of the legitimate aims of manual-arts instruction? 2. To what extent can general manual-arts courses be utilized as a basis for differentiated vocational courses? 3. What are the more important qualifications for teachers in vocational courses?
EXPERIMENTS TO BE MADE.
1. To determine the characteristics of 14 to 16 year old boys and girls who leave school on or soon after the completion of the compulsory school period. 2. To discover methods of interesting each of the several types in self-improvement.
In addition to the above, the committee has under consideration by different members such questions as the following: (1) By what means or in what terms can courses of study in manual arts be adequately expressed? (2) What constitutes a satisfactory training for teaching vocational courses, and in what way may it be gained? (8) What advantages may lie in checking and in giving school credit for home industrial work? (4) What special problems are there relative to manual-arts courses in the rural high school?
It is significant that, while admitting that college preparation should not greatly concern the organizer of the secondary school, the majority of the members of the committee felt that it was important to discuss the value of manual-arts courses as preparation for college. It was suggested by Mr. Kingsley, at the conference at Philadelphia, that—
The best way to prepare for college Is to forget all about college entrance requirements anil develop motives. Few students fail In college If, after completing a well-planned high-school course, they go to college to secure what the college has to offer. We should Ignore "preparation for college" in the narrower sense as a legitimate aim in high-school work.
AYhile we agree with the spirit of that statement, we are moved by three major considerations to insist that preparation for college must be taken into consideration in our discussion of the fundamental question submitted to our*subcommittee, nnmely, What is the place of manual arts in secondary education? 'iiiese three considerations are as follows:
First. Whatever we may undertake in reorganizing the secondary school, we must be careful to avoid anything which will create the impression that some courses are held in less esteem than others or that they are not " open at the top."
Second. For years to come there will be in our secondary schools principals and teachers who, no matter how valiantly our committee may assert that " the best preparation for life is the best preparation for college," will, nevertheless, regard as inferior any and all courses for which college entrance credit is not allowed. It is this attitude of the college-bred secondary-school teacher which constitutes the real domination of the college over the secondary school. Teachers of manual arts have had far too much experience in the past in trying to advance this subject in the face of this kind of opposition to allow them to forget the futility of trying to induce children to take the work when they understand that no " credit" is given for it. It is, unfortunately, true that the very children who have the least need of college credit and the least opportunity of making use of it are frequently deterred from taking those courses which are thus ranked as inferior.
Third. We believe that manual arts may be so taught as to contribute to the intellectual power and social outlook to such an extent as to fully justify its acceptance as a part of preparation for college.
In short, the committee, while reaching out after all the good that is promised by freedom from slavish adherence to educational tradition, while welcoming every new influence from without the schools which will make the work more real and more vital, while striving 10602°—13 6
especially to make the secondary school more attractive and of greater benefit to that large number of unschooled youths between 14 and 18 years of age, yet believes that this can be accomplished without curtailing any opportunities which the schools now afford our million and a third high-school pupils. Diversity of direction, differentiation of purpose, attention to individual needs and aptitudes, these must be attained without losing sight of the demonstrated values of all the older and more thoroughly organized school subjects which have made the American school system the acknowledged success which it is to-day in spite of its critics.
Frank M. Leavitt, Chairman. University Of Chicago, Chicago, III.
The other members of the committee on manual arts are as follows:
Wilson H. Henderson, secretary of the committee, director vocational training, Hammond, Ind.
L. R. Abbott, director manual training, Grand Rapids, Mich.
W. J. Bogan, principal Lane Techinal High School, t)hicago, I1L
G. F, Buxton, Stout Institute, Menomonie, Wis.
P. W. Covert, Manual Training High School, Indianapolis, Ind.
A. D. Dean, chief of division of vocational schools, Albany, N. Y.
C. H. Howe, Stuyvesant High School, New York, N. Y.
Ben Johnson, director manual and industrial education, Seattle, Wash.
O. J. Kern, county superintendent of schools, Rockford, 111.
C. W. Kirschner, principal Boardman Manual Training High School, New Haven, Conn.
C. A. Maupin, principal Industrial High School, Columbus, Ga.
E. E. McCready, director manual training, Newark, N. J.
R. W. Selvidge, professor manual arts University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.
F. W. Turner, Mechanic Arts High School, Boston, Mass.
STATEMENT OF CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE ON
The qualities of thought and feeling out of which good music springs are highly desirable. They reflect a desire for beauty; they reveal the spirit of man in its more profound and universal relations and impulses. In common with the other arts and literature, and perhaps in higher degree, music tends to develop finer subjective life in the individual. This is true not only while the music is sounding. The quality of thought and feeling out of which it springs remains after the music ceases.
In public schools, where instruction in music is not primarily vocational or professional, the aim, conscious or unconscious, is obviously such subjective influence. A course in music that in due season and proper degree does not promise to adjust the learner in sympathetic response to the best music of the world is lacking in its proper quality, whatever marks of efficiency it may show.