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BULLETIN. 1913, NO. 44 WHOLE NUMBER 555

ORGANIZED HEALTH WORK
IN SCHOOLS

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF A CAMPAIGN FOR SCHOOL HYGIENE

IN MINNESOTA

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CONTENTS.

PART I.—Organization for Health Supervision.

Page.

Cities having provision for health supervision 6

(1) Supervision by a physician and one or more nurses 6

The school nurse W

(2) Health supervision of schools by nurses alone 14

(3) Health supervision by teachers 16

An outline for a health survey 18

Health supervision in rural schools 22

The medical officer in schools 24

The study of exceptional children 27

PART II.—State Organization of School Hygiene in Minnesota. 1

How the work Is carried out 31

Record of trip to Grand Rapids, Minn 33

Record of trip to Hibbing, Minn 34

Record of trip to Chlsholm, Minn 35

Record of trip to Mankato, Minn 35

The use of the health outline 36

School clinics 41

Bibliography 52

Appendix.—Blanks and forms for records, parents' notices, etc 56

3

ORGANIZED HEALTH WORK IN SCHOOLS.

PART I.—ORGANIZATION FOR HEALTH SUPERVISION

In 1900 only 8 cities in America had any organized health work in schools. Since that time over 400 cities have organized departments for the health supervision of school children, and as Dr. Leonard P. Ayres remarks, "this development is without parallel in the history of education." To quote further from Dr. Ayres, " No school (in 1900) had ever heard of a school nurse, for no city in the world employed one; but to-day (1911) 76 American cities have corps of school nurses as permanent parts of their educational forces * * * and 48 cities employ staffs of school dentists."

A few years ago the public schools made no provision for the education of the blind, crippled, or mentally deficient, but now in New York City alone there are more than 100 classes for mentally peculiar children, while arrangements are rapidly making for the care of crippled and other classes of physically handicapped children.

It was only as recently as 1909 that the first open-air school for tuberculous children was opened in Providence, but to-day such schools may be found in something over 40 cities. The special study of the mentally deficient child has engaged the attention of publicschool educators for a period of less than three years, but at present plans are rapidly making in many progressive towns and cities for the careful study of such children by the employment of exact psychological methods. All these facts indicate that the physical care of children is engaging the attention of the serious-minded schoolmen. Yet, while all these facts are interesting and significant, it must not be forgotten that no uniform methods of health organization in schools have been evolved, and that there still exist the most widely divergent beliefs and practices in this respect.

Health work in schools needs standardization. The experiences of cities already organized in school health matters ought to be studied by other places attempting such organization for the first time.

In general it may be safely stated that schools receive what they pay for. Whatever sort of public service is worth having is worth

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