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ns outside air after washing. The advantage of recirculation lies in the saving of heat, which at Springfield was found to be upward of 40 per cent during winter weather. This lower cost of heating makes it possible to circulate larger volumes of air and increase indoor comfort. Air washing also removed bacteria, epithelial scales derived from the skin, and odors.

D. THE HYGIENE OF THE JANITOR.

Homes H. Sekblky,
President lotca State Teachers' Colleye, Cedar Falls, Iowa.

The sanitation of the schoolhouse depends upon the school board, the teachers, and the janitor. The janitor is the servant of the public, and as such should be diligent in so conducting his part of the business as to conserve the welfare of the pupils. At the same time, the janitor is helpless in his endeavor unless he is granted the cooperation and the sympathy of the school board and the teachers. Certain preliminaries in construction, in environment, in appreciation of service, and in knowledge of the values of sanitation are essential to give the janitor a reasonable chance for success. Without these necessary conditions the janitor can not maintain satisfactory standards, and will gradually lose his disposition to seek improvement and develop excellence in all kinds of cleanliness.

There must be a sanitary environment for every schoolhouse before there can be a permanence of sanitary conditions in the building itself. Many sclioolhotises are so unfortunately located, the streets and the highways approaching them are in such an unfavorable condition as to cleanliness, that it is impossible to pass over them and enter the schoolhouse without producing unhygienic conditions. To better these conditions is the task of the school board.

The work of the janitor consists in keeping the building immaculately clean. This means that dust must be constantly removed from the walls, the floors, and the furniture of the building in its every part. Prevention is always easier than cleaning. Keeping the dirt out of the building is of more helpful importance than removing it after it is in. Janitor housekeeping includes the cleaning of blackboards, the cleaning of floors, and the removal of everything that, should not exist under sanitary regulations. Sweeping with brooms is not to be commended as & complete process of securing hygienic conditions, since thereby dust is developed and scattered everywhere to the detriment of all concerned. Methods should be adopted that suppress the stirring of the dust that gets into a room and yet enable what is found there to be removed without undue complications and evils. Possibly the vacuum systems of cleaning are great improvements on other methods in existence, but it is not likely that these systems can be universally adopted. Besides, the vacuum systems are unable to remove much dirt that adheres to the floor, walls, and furniture. Water remains the most valuable cleansing agency. Wiping floors, furniture, and even walls with clean water and a woolen cloth for a mop gives the most permanent hygienic results. Clean water is better than soapy water or any equivalent preparation, because it leaves no residue and gives a wholesome effect upon the atmosphere of the room. The only commendable* use for a broom or a brush is as a preliminary agent, to take up the coarser particles which may have been dropped on the floor by the pupils; wiping with water is the final dependence in completing the work necessary to be done.

It is well known that the educated and the trained representatives of the people do not yet acknowledge and believe that the principles of school hygiene are worth while. Even the scholar is not necessarily a hygienist to any remarkable extent. Intelligence and cleanliness do not necessarily go together. Regard for knowledge and regard for health are not associated factors in civilization. Consequently churches, public buildings, private homes, hotels, and restaurants are generally the most flagrant violators of the simplest laws of hygiene. It is therefore very difficult to get public attention to the necessities of school hygiene. The janitor does not receive the impression that a hygienic schoolhouse is required, and an indifferent public encourages him to be careless, indolent, and even unfavorable. It is possible that laws requiring suitable standards will be of some benefit; it is possible that earnest and interested teachers can be of much influence: but, after all, a higher degree of intelligence and of appreciation for scientific results must be brought to the consciousness of the masses of the people. To-day the States are sending out expert representatives to help the masses of the people to a better kind of agriculture, to a better success in animal industry, to the making of more wealth and prosperity in business: but when it comes to human health, human happiness physically, human progress in caring for human life, but few such experts are employed and but little instruction is given.

E. THE IDEAL SCHOOL SITE.

WrLLIAM H. Brainerd,
Architect, Boston, Mail.

The essential sanitary problems of a school are: To provide a place where instruction may be given with the minimum of fatigue and strain for pupils and teachers, and to provide hygienic conditions for the necessary accessories, such as corridors, toilets, playrooms and playgrounds.

The question as to how these problems are affected by the site may be discussed under the following heads, arranged as nearly as possible in the order of their importance: (1) Exposure to light; (2) surroundings; (3) space; (4) access; (5) proper conditions of soil. While the arrangement of heads is intended to be in the order of their importance, it may often happen that the advantages to be gained are so great under one of the less important heads, and the difference under the more important head so slight, that a consideration naturally of lesser importance may be the cause of the final selection of the site.

1. Exposure to light.—The first purpose of the school is instruction. The first need of instruction rooms is light, for the use of the eyes and apparatus. Light must be in abundance and without glare. Sunlight should reach all instruction rooms, and others so far as possible. Long-continued, hot sunlight is not desirable in classrooms. The desirability of exposure for classrooms is in the following order: Easterly, southerly, westerly. For large buildings a site permitting of the major axis running northeast and southwest is most desirable. Classrooms should have the easterly and southerly exposure; assembly hall and accessories, westerly and northerly exposures. If the site provides sufficient exposure to light, the circulation of air will probably be sufficient.

2. Surroundings.—These should enhance, not detract. There should be nothing noisy or noisome. Light and quiet should not be impaired. Beauty has positive hygienic value, by soothing and stimulating the mind.

3. Space.—The space must be sufficient to allow of low buildings— generally two stories, and never more than three stories, except in crowded city districts.

There should be open playground space amounting to from 30 to 50 square feet per pupil. Other needs, such as school gardens, athletic fields, etc.. should be considered. A southerly sloping hillside is many times desirable. Substitutes for accessory space may be found in adjacent municipal grounds or even in quiet side streets.

4. Access.—The site should be central to the district served. This may be a question of transportation rather than geography. The site should not be exposed to the noise and danger of contiguous railroad or street car lines, or main automobile thoroughfares.

5. Conditions of soil.—Must provide for a dry building. This is generally more a matter of expense than of actual soil. A welldrained site with, if possible, a sand or gravel subsoil is desirable. In rural and town schools the range of choice is generally sufficient to provide a suitable location. In older towns and in cities more important considerations may make wise the expenditure necessary to develop a poor site.

IV. OPEN-AIR SCHOOLS.

A. OPEN-AIR SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE.

John H. Van Pelt,

Architect, Xeic York, N. Y.

Unlike the architecture of the ordinary school, where experiment has prescribed the type, open-air schools have not yet been built and tried out. Ferryboats have been adapted to the purpose, open-air schoolrooms have been built or altered from old schoolrooms as minor parts of buildings, roofs covered and uncovered have been used, but the complete school, planned in all its details toward the one end, and of an advanced type, is yet to come.

In describing the ideal conditions to which I think such a school should conform, I have in mind a type slightly less radical than a school entirely out of doors with little more than a roof, but something considerably more open than what has been styled the lowtemperature school. In other words, I propose a building so constructed that the air in all parts of rooms where the children remain will be continually replaced by outdoor air that has only sojourned a few seconds within the limits of the building, yet not a building that is entirely without heat.

The ground for such a school should be sandy or gravelly without too much clay, so as to preclude a humid condition in the entering air. It should be protected from the wind by pine, spruce, or other trees suitable for screening; but these trees should not be too close to the building and should not cast a shade upon it. City schools should be so situated that sun will not be cut off from them by adjacent skyscrapers. This is also important, because the high buildings of our later construction cause concentrated air currents that would render work in an open-air school almost impracticable by blowing papers and material about and forcing dust and dirt up and through the school. Exposed conditions, such as Riverside Drive in New York City, would be objectionable, rendering it difficult to protect the schoolrooms from violent storms.

The orientation of the school should be such that sun will enter all classrooms during a part of any day in the year. This is especially important in such rooms as study rooms, where the children sojourn for a protracted period.

Toilets are to be placed so that odors can not reach the open classrooms. An insanitary condition of this kind will become particularly objectionable in warm weather.

It is essential that the plan be so arranged that all classrooms, study rooms, the auditoriums and wherever the children sojourn, shall have ventilation on two or more sides; to fulfill conditions properly, the room should be open on at least two sides that are opposite to each other. An open gallery is advantageous.

General plans may be divided into three classes—the U or H plan, where the wings are about open courts; the T or star plan, where the wings radiate from a center; and the inclosed court plan. The last named is not so good, and all plans should so inclose the courts that the latter are open on at least one side, which is not the north. This is to insure the entrance of the sun into all parts of the court during some part of the day.

I see no objection to a building three stories high above basement, or even higher, if means of ascent can be provided. Open galleries and open staircases are good, provided they are protected from snow and sleet. A great advantage is that children passing between the cold rooms do not undergo a sudden change of temperature. Snow and ice are particularly dangerous in the staircases.

Placing classrooms on the ground floor is objectionable because of the dust and odors from the street and the general impurity of the air.

Overhanging cornices are good, because they afford protection from rain for the open windows, but on the top floor they cast a shadow. A glass cornice, like a marquise, might be extended at the top of the building, or such protection might be constructed over each of the large windows.

The auditorium should be so situated that it can be thrown entirely open. It may be convenient to have it arranged so that it can be closed for special exercises when visitors are present.

Classroom windows must be so arranged that any side from which comes a heavy driving storm or a drifting mist can be closed. In such schools as the Providence school, one of the first open-air schools of the country, hinged windows were tried. They have not been found as advantageous as pivoted sash dividing the window into three parts, the upper half of the lower sash opening in, so that it projects above the head of a full-grown person. Such sash, somewhat inclined to the outside, form a protection from slanting rain, throwing the water out of the building. Double-hung windows are possible, running up into pockets in the head of the window and below the sill of the window above, so as to leave the entire opening free.

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