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Many weeks had not elapsed after the establishment of the station, before the Colonial Government decided on opening an occasional market in the neutral territory, within about half a day's journey of us. This excited considerable interest amongst all the clans along the coast, as all commercial intercourse with the tribes had hitherto been confined to Fort Wiltshire, to which place they could not take their produce without falling into the hands of Gaika, who levied upon them an intolerably heavy tax, in consideration of the fairs being held in the borders of his domain. No sooner was a bargain struck, than he or his agents unceremoniously seized the choicest part of the proceeds; and as the quantum sufficit was usually determined by the caprice of the Chief, or by the lawless cupidity of those whom he employed, the poor trader had frequently to return home with little or no thing for his journey.

Sunday, Nov. 18th.-Ere day began to dawn, we were aroused from our slumbers by rumours of war, and the utmost confusion prevailed during the greater part of the day. A company of soldiers having been sent against Chusoo's clan, a predatory band that infested the neighbouring mountains, the report of their guns led all the surrounding hordes to expect a visit, as no one seemed to know against whom vengeance was determined. In their alarm, therefore, every one fled to the station, concluding that no attack would be made upon them there, until some opportunity, at least, had been afforded for inquiry. In the course of a few hours the bushy banks of the Koonya were completely thronged both with men and cattle. The solemnity of the Sabbath was consequently greatly disturbed; nevertheless, unpleasant as were these circumstances, they furnished us with an excellent opportunity for enforcing a highly important lesson. Some of the chief Captains were extremely solicitous to know whether we should use our influence in endeavour

ing to protect them from danger, in case the troops came to Mount Coke; to this we of course replied in the affirmative, until guilt should be proved against them; but that the Mission premises must on no account whatever be regarded as a refuge for thieves: upon which they seemed greatly relieved, and frankly acknowledged the propriety of our determination. The barbarously indiscriminate manner in which military expeditions have sometimes rushed upon the tribes, spreading desolation and death on account of robberies committed by individuals unknown, has naturally rendered the very sound of such expeditions dreadful throughout the land.

On all occasions of this kind, the poor women are perfect slaves. It was with an aching heart that I witnessed many aged females passing by, in the course of the day, having both heads and hands so heavily laden with hides, calabashes, and cooking utensils, &c., as to be scarcely able to move along. Thus circumstanced, great numbers doubtless fall into the hands of the enemy, in times of war; for their husbands afford them no assistance or protection whatever. The preservation of the cattle constitutes the grand object of their solicitude; and with these, which are trained for the purpose, they run at an astonishing rate, leaving both wives and children to take their chance.

The ease with which the Kaffer lays aside his anxieties and care is truly remarkable. When the fatigues and toils of the day are brought to an end, he collects his herd, kindles a little fire, creeps under the spreading boughs of a bush, and there contentedly wraps himself up in his mantle. Amidst the most troublous times, if imminent danger be not absolutely at hand, he cheerfully spends his evening in turning the adventures of the day into tales of the most jocular description, and then lies down to sleep as composedly as if guarded by a thousand



Dushani's Visit to Albany—The Attack upon Graham's Town —Escape of an old Native-Fury of an Elephant-Extent of Kaffer Territory-Buffalo Mountains-Superstitious Fear-Character of the soil-Numerous Springs-Ravages of Locusts-Bushman's Cave-Chief's Sporting Grounds -Kaffer Hospitality-A Banditti.

THE year 1826 was commenced by our young Chief in a manner that fully proved the sincerity of his lesire for peace with the colony. A native belonging to one of the neighbouring clans, having brought into his territories a number of stolen horses for sale, was arrested, and compelled to give them up. On the second of January he came to inform me that he had succeeded in getting possession of them, and that he was determined to forward them to the colonial authorities, to be restored to their respective owners. The appearance of such a principle could not but be hailed with pleasure, although the numerous questions to which such subjects sometimes give rise, constitute no small portion of our perplexities. The time appointed for our District-Meeting being at hand, I proposed his accompanying me to Graham's Town, where he might himself deliver the stolen animals in the proper quarter, and thereby obtain an introduction to those in power. To this he gladly acceded, and went at the time appointed, attended only by two of his counsellors, his younger brother, and a couple of servants.

The day after their arrival, they were introduced to Lieutenant-Colonel Somerset, the Commandant, who kindly ordered all necessary attention to be paid to their wishes and wants during their stay. The day following, being


Sabbath, they attended divine service in our chapel, and conducted themselves with marked propriety. The appearance of the congregation, the order of the service, and the solemnity of the occasion, evidently impressed them much, as they had never before witnessed anything of the kind. After minutely examining almost every corner of the place, Dushani, with manifest astonishment, exclaimed, And is it possible to build such a house for God in our land?" After spending about a week in town, they became anxious respecting home; and as I was not ready to return, the Commandant furnished them with a military escort, lest any harm should befall them on the way. During their stay, they were treated with unexpected kindness by the British colonists generally; received numerous presents, and returned highly satisfied with their visit.


The appearance of this Chief in Albany revived the recollection of an event which it may not be uninteresting here to notice. The last combined attack of the Kaffers upon the colony, made when Graham's Town was a mere garrison, and but a few months prior to the arrival of the emigrants, was commanded by this very man. Colonel W., the principal officer on the station hearing that the natives were approaching, sent out detachments to reconnoitre; and these, upon coming within sight of the sable army, immediately gallopped back to the camp with all speed. Perceiving this, the Kaffers were unhappily led to conclude, that the small and scattered party before them constituted the whole force of the enemy, whose precipitate retreat induced the supposition that they were leaving the field in despair. Under this impression they made a rapid advance, which was unsuspectingly continued until close to the very mouths of the cannon. These had been drawn out and planted not far from where our Mission-house and chapel now stand. At the very moment, therefore, when the

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poor creatures were dreaming of certain victory, sudden destruction came upon them. A dreadful firing was opened; and great numbers literally blown to atoms, whilst others escaped, not without serious wounds and broken limbs, which in many instances proved fatal afterwards.

One old man, who had the care of our draught oxen, received two or three musket balls in different parts of his body; one of these penetrated his left breast, and came out above the shoulder blade; so that it actually passed directly through him. When pointing out the spot on which he stood at the time he was shot, he further stated that he lay amongst the dead for several hours ; during which period, a party of soldiers passed by, examining the bodies, and putting to death all in whom symptoms of life appeared. At length, however, covered by the shades of evening, he managed to creep away on his hands and knees, staying the effusion of blood by stuffing his wounds with grass and herbage, as he went along; using, at the same time, a certain diarrhœtic, consisting of herbs and the leaves of shrubs. In this condition he travelled, by short stages, nearly fifty miles; and in the course of a few months, was in a great measure restored to health again. He carried with him, however, the effects of that adventure to the day of his death, as he never acquired perfect soundness; and the wounds left large cicatrices, showing the entré and egress of the ball. On questioning him respecting the cause of so remarkable a deliverance, he very frankly ascribed it to that almighty Power with which he was but little acquainted, and of which, at the period alluded to, he knew nothing at all.

The recollection of that day and its scenes made them tremble while approaching the spot, and especially when within sight of the town. The number, size, and arrangement of the houses, viewed from the neighbouring hills,

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