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before the fourth day of March next following, then the VicePresident shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the groatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then, from the two bighest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President, shall be eligible to the office of Vice-President of the United States,

(ARTICLE XIII.) SEC. 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation,

(ARTICLE XIV.) SEC. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

SEC. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridge, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion wbich the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Sec. 3. No person shall be a senator or representative in Con. gress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who having previously taken an oath as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof; but Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability.

SEC. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.

SEC. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appra priate legislation, the provisions of this article.

(ARTICLE XV.) Sec. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State or account of race, color, or previous condition of servi. tude.

Sec. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

THE Constitution was adopted on the 17th September, 1787, by the Convention appointed in pursuance of the Resolution of the Congress of the Confederation of the 21st February, 1787, and ratified by the Conventions of the several States, as follows By Convention of Delaware... .7th December, 1787

Pennsylvania. .12th December, 1787
New Jersey 18th December, 1787
Georgia.... ......20 January, 1788
Connecticut. ..Oth January, 1788
Massachusetts. .......6th February, 1788
Maryland ...

.28th April, 1788
South Carolina

.230 May, 1788

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By Convention of New Hampshire ..21st June, 1788

..26th June, 1788
New York..

... 26th July, 1787 North Carolina ..... .21st November, 1789 Rhode Island... .29th May, 1790

The first ten of the Amendments were proposed on the 25th September, 1789, and ratified by the constitutional number of States, on the 15th December, 1791; the eleventh, on the 8th January, 1798; the twelfth, on the 25th September, 1804; the thirteenth, on the 18th December, 1864; the fourteenth, on the 20th July, 1868, and the fifteenth, on the 30th March, 1870.




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Is one of peculiar inter est, and therefore we fee warranted in giving more details of its design and history than can be allotted to the Seals of the several States. Soon after the de claration of independence, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson were appointed a committee to prepare great seal for the infant republic ; and they employed à French West Indian, named Du Simitiere, not only to furnish designs, but also to sketch such devices As were suggested by them

Belves. In one of his designs, the artist displayed on a shield the armorial ensigns of the several Dations from whence America had been peopled-embracing those of Eugland, Scotland, Ireland, France, Germany, and Holland. On one side was placed Liberty with her cap, and on the other was a rifleman in uniform, with his rifle in one hand and a tomahawk in the otherthe dress and weapons being peculiar to America.

Franklio proposed, for the device, Moses lifting his wand, and dividing the Red Sea, and Fharaoh and his hosts overwhelmed with the waters For a mottu, the words of Cromwell, “ Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God."

Adams proposed the Jhoice of Hercules ; the hero resting on a club, Virtue pointing to her rugged mountain on one hand, and persuading him to ascend; and Sloth, glancing at her flowery paths of pleasure, wantonly reclining on the ground, displaying the charms, bolh of her eloquence and person, to seduce him into vice.

Jefferson proposed the Children of Israel in the Wilderness, led by a c.oud by day and a pillar of fire by night ; and, on the reverse, Hengist Bad Horsa, the Soxon chiefs, from whom we claim the honor of being

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descended and whose political principles and form of government we have assumed.

Franklin and Adams then requested Jefferson to combine their ideas in a compact description of the proposed great seal, which he did, and that paper, in his handwriting, is now in the office of the Secretary of State at Washington. This design consisted of a shield with six quar. terings, parti one,coupi two, in heraldic phrase. The first gold, and an enameled rose, red and white, for England ; the second white, with a thistle, in its proper colors, for Scotland ; the third green, with a harp of gold, tor Ireland ; the fourth blue, with a golden lily-flower, for France; the fifth gold, with the imperial black eagle for Germany; and the sixth gold, with the Belgic crowned red lion, for Holland. These denoted the countries from which America had been peopled. He proposed to place the shield within a red border, on which there should be thirteen white escutcheons, linked together by a gold chain, each bearing appropriate initials, in black, of the confederated States. Supporters, the Goddess of Liberty on the right side, in a corslet of armor, in allusion to the then state of war, and holding the spear and cap in her right hand, while her left supported the shield. On the left the Goddess of Justice, leaning on a sword in her right hand, and in her left a balance. The crest, the eye of Providence in a radiant tri. angle, whose glory should extend over the shield and beyond the figures. Motto: È Pluribus Unum—“Many in one." Around the whole, “SEAL OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, MDCCLXXVI." For the reverse, he proposed the device of Pharoah sitting in an open chariot, a crown on his head and a sword in his hand, passing through the divided waters of the Red Sea in pursuit of the Israelites. Rays from a pillar of fire in a cloud, expressive of the Divine presence and command, beaming on Moses, who stands on the shore, and, extending his hand over the sea, causes it to overwhelm Pharaoh and his follow.

Motto: “Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God.” Jefferson's device was highly approved by his coadjutors, and the committee reported on the 10th of August, 1776 ; but, for some unaccountable reason, their report was ne rlected, not having been even paced on record; and the affair was allowed to slumber until the 24th of March, 1779, when Messrs. Lovell, of Massachusetts, Scott, of Vir. ginia, and Houston, of Georgia, were appointed a committee to make another device.

On the 10th of May following they reported in favor of a seal four inches in diameter, one side of which should be composed of a shield with thirteen diagonal stripes, alternate red and white. Supporters, a warrior, holding a sword on one side, and on the other the figure of Peace, bearing in olive branch. The cresi, a radiant constellation of thirteen stars. Motto : Bello del Pace—“For War or Peace," and the legend, "seal of the United States.” On the reverse, the figure of Liberty, seated in a chair, holding the staff and cap. Motto: Semper“ Forever"-aud underneath, MDCCLXXVI. This report was re-committed,and avain submitted with some slight modifications (substituting the figure of an Indian with bow and arrows in his right hand for that of a wariior) just a ver afterward ; but it was not accepted, and the matter rested until April, 1782, when Henry Middleton, Elias Boudinot


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