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the United States of $125,000, to the stock of berland River, Tennessee, and the subject was the Canal Company. The former proposition postponed till Wednesday. Mr. CAMBRELENG, was RĖJECTED, ayes 64, noes 87; the latter was from the Committee on 1:ommerce, reported a REJECTED by a vote of ayes 61, noes 76. bill making an appropriation for a Marine Hos.
pital at Portland, in Maine, which was read Monday, MAY 7.
twice and committed to a Committee of the In the House of Representatives, the discus- Whole House on the state of the Union. The sion was resumed of the report in the case of Committee of the whole was, on the motion of the Wiscasset collector; and, Mr. Slade, of Mr. WAITTLESET, of Ohio, discharged from the Vermog', commenced an argument in favor of bill for the relief of the representatives of Nim. an investigation by the House. At the expira- rod Farrow and Richard Harris, and the hill tion of the morning hour, 'the House, on the is accordingly brought into the House. Mr. motion of Mr. SUTHERLAND, suspended the rule EVERETT, of Massachusetts, presented a report assigning Saturdays for private business, and for the minority of the Select Committee on took up the internal improvemellt appropria- the apportiorment hill, which was referred and tion bill
, comprising within its provisions ap- ordered to be printed. The further considera. propriations for harbors, the improvement of tion of the Wiscasset case was postponed till navigable rivers, roads, &c. The amendment this day; and the resolution of Mr. Wilde, on appropriating $275,000 for the continuance of the subject of the currency, was, after some the works of the Delaware breakwater, was, on remarks, from Mr. Wilde, and Mr. IRVIN, the motion of Mr. SUTHERLAND, concurred in adopted. The resolution submitted on a preby the House. The different amendments of ceding day by Mr. Drarton, directing the Se. the Committee of the Whole on the state of the cretary of War to revise and combine into one, Union, reported to the House on Thursday, the various acts in relation to the army, and to were considered, and the greater portion of report thereon at an early period of the next them rejected, were renewed.
session of Congress, was agreed to likewise.
A resolution of inquiry into the affairs of the
Post Office Department, was proposed by Wr.
; justment of the northern boundary line of the that it was not for words spoken in debate, but State of Ohiv; the bill for the relief of Ran. for the after publication of a calumnious libel. som Mix; the bill for the relief of Christopher He took, also, the ground that breach of pri.. Brooks; the bill for the relief of Stephen Plea-vilege, even where committed, was totally un. santon, which was passed by yeas and nays, defined. Mr. Houston concluded his reyeas 24, nays 11, after an animated debrie; the marks at 2 o'clock, when he was conducted bill for the relief of Prosper Marigny; the bill from the bar attended in the usual form by the to extend the patent of Jethro Wood; and the Sergeant-at-Arms. Mr. Harper, of N. Hamp. bill for the removal of the Post Office from shire, then submitted a resolution that the ne. Mount Salus, in the State of Mississippi, and cused be discharged from custody. Mr. for the removal of the Land Office from Frank HUNTINGTON submitted an amendment to the lin to Fayette, in the State of Missouri. Al resolution, declaring that Samuel Houston has one o'clock, the General Post Office bill was been guilty of a contempt of this House. In taken up as the unfinished business; the ques support of the proposition, he observed, that tion being on Mr. Bubb's motion to amend the the case resolved itself into three points, two bill by abolishing the postage on newspapers; of them matters of fact, and one a question of and Mr. Holmes, who was eniitled to the door, law. The first two was the assault committed, continued his speech in favor of the amend- and was it an assault for words spoken ment, until the Senate adjourned.
in debate. The other was, whether it was In the House of Representatives, a variety of in the power of the House to punish it petitions and memorials were presented, and as a breach of their constitutional privileges. among them one by Mr. Adams, from many. Upon these different points, Mr. HUNTINGTON facturers of musical instruments, praying for argued at at great length, and with his usual additional duties upon those articles. Mr. force and ability. Mr. INGERSOLL moved that SPEight moved a reconsideration of the vote the further proceedings be postponed till 11 of the House on Saturday, on the motion for an o'clock this day, which was agreed to. The appropriation for the improvement of the Cum. House, then, at 4 o'clock, adjourned.
DEBATE ON THE TARIFF.
abuse it, and levy too much; they refused to DEBATE ON MR. CLAY'S RESOLUTION. vest the Congress of the confederation with
power to levy duties upon imports, and to reSPEECH OF MR. BENTON,
gulate the foreign commerce of the States, beMR. PRESIDENT: The present session of Con cause they saw that in granting these powers, grees was looked to with great anxiety by the they yielded the unlimited and respons ble people of this Union, as the one which was to power of taxation, and left themselves without effect a large reduction in the public revenue, and defence against the exactions of the General an equitable modification in the existing tarift. Government. They resisted, they refused. To The people expected these things from us; but all the solicitations of Congress, they turned a up to this moment they seem to be in a fair way
deaf ear, and were inexorable. For ten years to be disappointed; for no bill is even yet been they held out; but the convention of 1787 inbrought in to accomplish their jusi expecta serted these two powers in the new constitu. tions; and we are now well advanced in the tion, and the States, with infinite difficulty, fourth month of the session.
were induced to acquiesce; but that acquiescThe President of the United States has cer-ence was the effect, not of arguments, but of tainly performed his part. His annual message, pledges!--pledges of that high and solemn na. received by us in the first week of December, ture which no man, of that day, was permitted contained a strong recommendation to this to believe could ever be violated. As I consiCongress, to reduce the revenue to the wants of der this pledge as a corner stone, lying at the the Government, and to adjust the duries on fo. foundation of the present constitution, I will reign imports so as to favor our national inter take care to establish it by proof ; and for that ests at home, and counteract adverse policy purpose will have recourse to the legislative from abroad; and he showed us, in the same history of the proceedings of the Congress of message, that the state of the finances, and the the confederation which led to the adoption of state of the country, required these things to be the present constitution, contained in the first done, and to be done now! These recommen volume of the laws of the United States. I dations will shield the President from censure read from the Rhode Island objections to the for neglect in failing to bring the subject of the application of Congress for power to levy duties tariff before us; and it oughi to shield him from on, and regulate foreign commerce. the imputation of double dealing on that sub Here is the objection. Listen to it. ject. It ought to shield him from that imputa.
" That by grimting to Congress a power TO tion! For his sentiments are plainly expressed, COLLECT MONEYS from the commerce of and are, therefore, intelligible. They are pub. these States, INDEFINITELY AS TO licly delivered, and are, thereby, universally TIME AND QUANTITY, and for the EXPEN. known. They are in accordance with all his DITURE of which they are NOT to be ACprevious acts and words upon the tariff, and COUNTABLE to the STATES, they would beare, therefore, entitled to credit for candor and come INDEPENDENT of their constituenst, sincerity. I might go further, and say that his and so, the proposed impost is REPUGNANT to sentiments are in accordance with the public the LIBERTY of the UNITED STATES.” wishes, and the public interests; but I will not And here is the answer to that objection. assume to speak for a nation! I will speak for Listen to it also. myself alone, and will say that the President “ Admilting the PRINCIPLE of this objection has well expressed my sentiments in this to be TRUE, still it ought to huve no weight in recommendation, such as I have often de- the present cuse, because there is no ANALOGY clared them to the Senate here, and to my con- between the PRINCIPLE and the FACT. The stituents at home; and, this being the case, il fund proposed is sufficiently DEFINITE as to is my duty, still more than my inclination, to TIMÉ, because it is only COEXTENSIVE defend these sentiments, at this time, and in with the EXISTENCE of the DEBT, contract. this place, arraigned as they have been on this ed, and to be contracted, in the course of the war. Avor, und stigmatized as ruinous to the couniry. Congress are persuaded that il is as remote from
I am in favor of reducing the revenue to the the intention of their constituents to PERPE. Wants of the Government, not only for the rea. TUATE that DEBT, as to extinguish it at once sons which have been mentioned by the Presi- by a faithless neglect of providing the means to dent and by several Senators, but for another fulfil the public engagements. Their ability to reason in addition, and which presents itself to discharge it in a moderate time, can be as little my mind as a compact between the States and doubted as their inclination; and the MOMENT the Federal Governinent. We all know that that DEBT CEASES,the DUTY, as far as it res. the present form of government grew out of pects the present provision, CEASES WITH IT." the weakness of the government of the confe Mark, I beseech you, Mr. President, the lan. deration, and that the taxing power was the guage of this objection, and of this answer. hinge upon which the change turned. The The objection is to the revenue rai-ing power, Congress of the confederation had no power 10 and is three-fold in its nature. 1. Because the tax the people of the States. It had no power exercise of the power was to be indefinite as to over the purse. It could only ask for money; lime. 2. Because the revenue to be raised and this being found a slow way to obtain it, was to be unlimited as to quantity. 3. Because the power of iacing was appied for. The states the Federal Congress was to be una counluble refused this power, because the Congress might to the States for the expendilure of this reve
This was the three-fold nature of the ob. and the abolition of these sixteen millions is jection; and the conclusion, or inference, from now demanded; demanded as a right; and that the whole, was, that such a grant of power was by nearly one half the States of this Union. incompatible with the liberty of the States. The demand is resisted, and resisted on the Now, mark the answer: It admits the conclu- ground that the reductiun will destroy the pro. sion which the objection draws, but denies the lection due to domestic manufactures, and will premises. It admits the incompatibility be cover the country with desolation, and lead to tween the liberty of the States, and the grant the dissolution of the Union. Sir, I pass over of unlimited and irresponsible power of taxation the first, and most obvious answer to this obin the Federal Government; but takes a dis.jection; the answer which tells us that the pritinction between the principle and the fact-vate interests of the manufacturers cannot be between the possession and the exercise,-nf set up to vacate a fundamental compact beunlimited power;-and, while admitting the ty. tween the States and the Federal Government. ranny of the principle, denies the analogy of pass over that answer which is in the nature the fact; and solemnly pledges the whole faith of a demurrer, admitting the fact, and denying of Congress against the exercise of the power. its sufficency, I pass over that answer, because The pledge is contained in the solemn declara I do not admit, but deny the truth of the answer. tion that the duties imposed for the payment of I take fissue upon its truth; and mean to go to the public debt, shall cease to exist, the MOMENT trial upon the fact before the American people. thai debt is prid!
I maintain, Sir, that the federal revenue may Such was the objection, and s'ich the an- be reduced to the wants of the Government, as swer: and such they continued to be, in every recommended in the President's message, not stage of the process, till the Convention of 1787 only without destroying domestic manufactures, was assembled, and afterwards, until the new but without hurting or injuring them in the Constitution was ratified by the States. I do slightest degree. This is my assertion! The not quote from each of these periods, because proof and the demonstration shall follow; for I itwould consome time, and present innumera. know how insignificant it is to make bold asser. ble repetitions of the same thing. But I will tions without adequate proofs at hand to sup. remark, that the answer of the Congress oi port them. And here, Sir, permit me to pre. 1781, to the Rhode Island objections, was drawn sume that I am a friend to domestic industry, by the men who were the fathers of the present and voted for the tariff of 1824, with the appro. Constitution. It was drawn by General Ha. bation of my judgment, and for that of 1828, HILTON, Mr. Madison, and Mr. Fitzsimons, with repugnance and misgivings. I am a friend adopted by Congress unanimously, and promul to domestic industry, and mean to protect it, gated to the States as a public official act. Il according 10 wbat I believe to be the true poli. was the manifesto of Congress! and constantly cy of the country, sanctioned by the constitureferred to, and relied upon, until the Constitution and by the practice of the framers of the tion was produced by ihe Convention of '87, constitution. I will give protection, as an inci. and ratified by the States. HAMILTON, MADI. dent to revenue; and this is the kind of protec. 80%, and Fitzsimons were present at every tion which is coeval with the foundation of our scene-the Federal Convention-the State Con government, and under which manufactures atventions—the public press-repeating their tained a high degree of importance under the pledge, and going security for the new Govern- first twenty years of its existence; and that ment never to violate it. And thus, I consider without giving the least dissatisfaction 10 any a pledge, to abolish the duties levied on ac. part of the Union. As far back as the year count of the public debt, the moment that debt 1810, our manufactures had attained the annual was to be paid, to be a compact between the value of one hundred and twenty millions of States and the Federal Government; and a con. dollars, (as we learn from Mr. Gallatin's redition precedent, agreed upon between the par. port--a report which ought to have shielled ties, and without which, tlie unlimited and irre- him from the reproach which has been cast upon sponsible power of taxation, would never have him here!) and that under a low rate of revenue been given to this Congress.
duties, ranging from five to fifteen per centum. Forty years have passed by--the event has the same rate of protection would now produce been delayed far beyond the expectations of two hundred and furty millions of manufactures the year '87—but the event has at last arrived; annually-for our population is doubled since THE PUBLIC DEBT 18 PAID! for all legislative 1810. But it is not desired or intended, by purposes it is now considered as paid; and, any Senators with whom I am acquainted, to States, not one, but many; not the new only, reduce manufactures to the degree of prolecbut the old ones, who were party to the estab- tion possessed at that time. The lowest rate lishment of the Federal Government-who re proposed by the anti-tariff gentlemen is double ceived from ihe old Congress the solemn pledge and treble what it then was; and, for mysell, to abolish duties at the payment of the public I shall not go so low as they do. debt-these States now stand before you, and I now proceed to the proof of my assertion demand the redemption of that pledge. Six. that the revenue may be reduced to the wants teen millions of revenue were raised for the of the Government, without affecting, or impublic debt last year; the same amount is now pairing the successful progress of any manufaclevying for the debt this year; but next year itfiure.
And here I would ask, how many, and will not be wanted; nor in any year thereafter, which are the articles which require the pre
sent high rate of protection? Certainly not the year 1830, had done what the combined fleets and the cotton manufacture; for the Senator from Ken- and armies of the world could not do; it had
tocky (Mr. Chur) who appears upon this foo scaled the rock of Gibraltar, penetrated to the on the as the leading champion of domestic manufac, heart of the British garrison, taken possession
tures, and whose admissions of fact must be of his Britannic Majesty's soldiers, bound their conclusive against his arguments of theory! arms, legs, and bodies, and strutted in triumph. this Senator tells you, and dwells upon the over the ramparts and batteries of that inattack.
disclosure with triumphant exultation, that able fortress; and now, Sir, I will use no more bisco American cottons are now exported to Asia, of the gentleman's admissions. I will draw up. he poi
and sold at a profit in the cotton markets of on my own resources; and will show nearly the Dot ko Canton and Calcutta! Surely, Sir, our tariff whole list of our domestic manufactures to be in
laws of '24 and '28, are not in force in Bengal the same fourishing condition with cottons; and China. And I appoal to all mankind for actually going abroad to seek competition,
the truth of the inference, that, if our cottons WITHOUT PROTECTION, in every foreign clime, envis
can go to these countries and be sold at a profit and contending victoriously with foreign manu-
$619,238 add that it is worth a hundred thousand speech. Leather boots and shoes
338,603 es; and this fact, that American cottons now Household furniture
239,463 traverse the one half of the circumference of Coaches and carriages
51,130 this globe-cross the equinoctial line-descend Hats
309,362 to the antipodes-seek foreign cottons on the Saddlery
36,651 double theatre of British and Asiatic competi. Wax
153,666 tion, and come off victorious from the contest - Spirits from grain, beer, ale, &c. 225,327 is a full and overwhelming answer to all the Snuff and tobacco, (manufactured) 246,747 speeches that have been made, or ever can be Leenseed oileand spirits of turpentine 35,039 made, in favor of high protecting duties on Cordage
4,135 these cottons at home. The only effect of Inon, pig, bar, and nails
96,183 such duties is to cut off consumption—to create Castings of iron
35,408 monopoly at home-to enable our manufactur- All manufactures of IRON
177,876 ers to sell their good: higher to their own Chris. Spirits from molasses
49,798 tian fellow citizens, than to the Pagan worship. Sugar refined
193,084 pers of Fo and of Brahma! to enable ihe inba-Gunpowder
128,625 bitants of the Ganges and the Burrampooter to Copper and brass, (manufactured) 36,601 wear American cottons upon cheaper terms Medical drugs
92,154 than the inhabitants of the Ohio and Mississip- Printed and colored COTTON goods 61,800 pi. And every western citizen knows the fact, While cotton goods
964, 196 that when these shipments of American cottons Nunkeen COTTONS
1,093 were making to the extremities of Asia, the Twist, yarn, and thread do.
24,744 price of these same cottons was actually raised All other manufactures of COTTON
266,350 20 and 25 per cent. in all the towns of the west: Wearing apparel
102,277 with this further difference to our prejudice, Combs and buttons
124,589 that we can only pay for them in money, while Umbrellas and parasols
25,796 the inhabitants of Asia make payment in the Leather and morocco skins
70,968 products of their own country: Printing presses and types
10,261 This is what the gentleman's admission prov. Books and maps
32,004 ed; but I do not come here to argue upon ad- Paper and other stationery
40,334 missions, whether candid, or unguarded, of the Paints and varnish
13,716 adversary speakers. I bring my own facts and Vinegar
6,699 proofs; and, really, Sir, I have a mind to com-Earthen and stoneware
2,773 plain that the gentleman's adınission about cot-Glass
60,280 tons have crippled the force of my argument- Artificial Aowers
.13,707 that it has weakened its effect, by letting out Molasses
3,968 half at a time, and destroyed its novelty, by an Trunks
6,654 anticipated revelation. The truth is, I have Salt, (domestic)
22,978 this fact, (that we exported domestic cottons,)
This is the list of domestic manufactures extreasured up in my magazine of argument; and ported to foreign countries. It comprehends intended to produce it, at the proper time, to the whole, or nearly the whole, of that long ca. show that we exported this article, not to Can. talogue of items which the Senator from Ken. ton and Calcutta alone, but to all quarters of tucky (Mr. Clar) read to us on the second day the globe; not a few cargoes only, by way of of his discourse; and shows the whole to be experiment
, but in great quantities, as a regular going abroad, without a shodow of protection, trade to the amount of a million and a quarter to seek competition, in foreign markets, with
of dollars annually; and thal, of this amoup, no the foreign goods of all the world. The list of ad
less than forty thousand dollars worth in the articles I have read, contains near fifty varieties
of manufactures, (and I have omitted many mi The list also contains this item: nor articles,) amounting, in value, to near Sıx “ Salt
$22,378." MILLIONS OF DOLLARS! And now, behold the Turning to the detailed statement, and we diversity of human reasoning! The Senator find that this ealt of domestic manufacture goes from Kentucky exhibits a list of articles manu. to Canada, actually goes into his Britannic Mafactured in the United States, and argues that jesty's dominions, where British salt comes free the slightest diminution in the enormous protec-of duty, and wbere it has to contend with that tion they now enjoy, will overwhelm the whole salt, upon its own territory, and without a parin ruin, and cover the land with desolation. Iicle of protection! Now, why not contend exhibit the same list, and argue that these arti- with it also at home, upon our territories, upon cles can bear, without injury, a very considera- the same terms! It can certainly stand the ble diminution. He says, if there is the least competition better at home, than abroad: why, diminution, foreigners will come here and un- then, does it want protection at home --Mr. dersell them; I say, no, because these articles President, another opportunity will present it. now go abroad, and undersell foreigners, in fo- self for going at large into the whole question. reign markets, without a particle of protection. of the salt tax: but I cannot permit this oppor This is the difference in our REASONING, for our tunity--so forcibly presented by the actual view PACTS are the samE; and which is right, I leave of American salt exported to the British domito the common sense of all mankind to say. nions—to pass by, without unfolding the pecue
I do not propose to comment, item by item, liar operation of the tariff laws upon this article on all the articles contained in this list. I have of universal and prime necessity. I will make read it in detail, and leave the reflections, which a brief exposition of this cruel operation; and the reading suggests, to the understandings of first we will see the quantity, and value of for others.' A few iiems only I will examine, fur reign salt imported into the United States, as the purpose of exemplifying my own opinion of shown in the custom-house returns of 1830: the tariff, and of the kind of modification it ought to receive. In some instances, the ma
QUANTITY, value, and price, per bushel, (of 56 lbs.) of
Salt imported iuto the United States, for the year 1830. nufacture is so generally diffused, and the price reduced so low by domt stic competition, that
Bushels. the duty is a dead letter, giving no preference to the artizan, adding no increase of price to From the Swedish W., 1. 6,278) $500 8 the purchaser; and in such cases, no practical
Danish W. Indies
24,233 2,656 11 man should trouble himself about the duty. In Dutch W. Indies 95,483 7,506 7 other instances, the domestic supply is far from England
13,083,347 469 711| 153 being equal to the demand; large foreign sup Scotland
1,575 293 184 plies must be procured, and the duty on the Ireland
56,798 11,556 20% foreiga article is paid by the consumer; in such Gibraltar
37,360 4,146 111 instances, there ought to be a reasonable re British W. Indies 705,526 65,6189 duction. In other instances, again, the duty British American enables a few to engross the domestic market, Colonies
3,926 1,583 403 and to exact exortionale prices, where, in fact, Other B.itish Co. no duty is necessary at ali to give them a fair lonies
16,203 1,250 74 profit; and, in such cases, the duty should be France, on the Me. abolished. In other instances, the foreign arti diterranean 86,582 6,772 71 cle has no rival, or substitute, manufactured in : Hayti
7,4601 962) 127 the United States; and, in such cases, the fo Spain, on the Al. reign article should be freed from duty. I du lantic
436,690 29,665 64 noi now travel over the list to exemplify these Spain, on the Me. positions; the time will come for that exempli. diterranean 86,372 7,574 81 fication when we arrive at the details of the bill. Cuba
17,296 6,849 393 I will take two items only to illustrate some part Other Spanish W. of a f my meaning, namely, iron and salt. The list
607 50 84 shows a large exportation, upwards of $300,000 Portugal
620,1881 49,6211 8 worth, of domestic iron, and its manufactures. Fayal and other Turning to the detailed statement from which
6,489 835 124 this summary list is compiled, and we find this
Cape de Verd Is. entry under the head of nails:
6,682) 510 71 “ To Cuba, 1,030,376 lbs.-value $61,216.” Sicily
15,375 569! 41 Now, Sir, let any person who can work a Italy and Malta 35,915 2,007 51 sum in the golden rule of three, calculate the Trieste, and other price of these nails per pound. He will find
9,363 310 31 it to be less than six cents!--and whether these Turkey, Levant, exported nails consisted of an assortment, which
8,588 907 101 is nost probable, or were all of the lowest price, Mexico,
157 86 54+ which is impossible to believe, it will turn out Colombia
1,000) 200) 10 that American nails are exported for less tban Brazil
1,647 1731 103 they are sold at home! for it is incontestible W. Indies gena’lly 2,906 300 101 that the people of the west pay more than six cento a pound for their nails.