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title any person, except as is hereafter mention thousand eight bundred and thirty-three, in tioned, to a pension by virtue of this act, he calculating the rates of duties, the pound stershall make a declaration, under oath or afirma ling shall be considered and taken as of the tion, before the district judge of the United value of four dollars and eighty cen:s. States in the district, or before a court of record SEC. 3. And be il further enacted, That, from of the county, State, or Territory, in which be and after the day last aforesaid, all articles, er: shall reside, setting forth, if he belonged to the cept such as are hereinafter provided for, im. army, the company, regiment, and line to which ported into the United States, now subject to he belonged, together with the time of his en- Julies at a higher rate than twenty five per tering and leaving the service, and if he belong: centum ad valorem, or if the duties are speci. ed to the navy, a like declaration, setting forth fic, higher than they would be at twenty five the name of the vessel in which he was employ per centum ad valorem, or if in part ad valorem ed, with the time of entering and leaving the and in paft specific, at a rate higher than they service, and shall offer such other evidence as would be at i wenty-five per centum ad valohe may be able to produce; and if it shall ap. rem, there shall be a reduction of ten per cene pear to the satisfaction of the said judge or tum upon the rates or amounts of such duties, court, by the said testimony, that the facis set respectively; which reduced rates, or amounts forth in the said declaration are true, a certifi- of Juries, shall be levied and collected until cate 10 that effect, together with a certified co. the first day of January, one thousand eight py of the testimony under the seal of the court, hundied and thirty-four ; frum and after which shall be transmitied to the Secretary of War, day there shall be a further reduction of ten and the same shall be taken and deemed to be per m on such reduced rates or amounts conclusive evidence of the truth of the facis set of duties as aforesaid. Provided, That such duforth in the said declaration : Provided always, ties shall, in no case, be lass than twenty-five Tliat no person shall be entitled to a pension per centum ad valorem. by virtue of this act unless the evidence of SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That all the applicant's service shali be established by articles imported into the United States, manu. written evidence, or by the testimony of ove factured in whole of sheet, rod, hoop, bolt, or credible witness, at least in addition to the de- bar iron, or of iron wire ; or of which slieet, claration of the applicant himself, nor where rod, hoop, bolt, or bar iron, or iron wire, shail the records of the War Department shall con- constitute the material of grealest value, shail tradict the statement contained in the said de. be rated as sheet, rud, hoop, bolt, or bar iton, claration.
or iron wire, as the ca-e may be, and pay a du. Sec. 10. And be il further enacted, That all ty accordingly; except such articles as by law persons who were placed on the list of revolu. are, or may be, subject to a greater amount of tionary pensions under the act of May eighteen, duty: and provided, That manufactures of eighteen hundred and eighteen, and who have such sheet, rod, hoop, bar, or bult iron, or iron been stricken from said list under the provisions wire, sha l, in no case, be less than twenty five of the act of May first, eighteen bundred and per centum ad valorem ; all parts of anchors twenty, on application to the Secretary of War, and parts of other manulactures of iron, shall and on proof of their identity, shall be restor- be subject to the same rates of duty as such ed by the said Secretary to said list, without anchurs or other manufactures are subject to said persons being required to comply with the wlien complete. All pieces of bar, bult, rod ninth section of this act; the payment of all such or hoop iron, imported as scrap iron, more than cases to commence on the fourth day of March, six inches in length, shall be rated as bar, bolt, one thousand eight hundred aid thirty-two. rod, or hoop iron, as the case may be, and pay
a duty accordingly. All old iron shall be subIN SENATE-Mar 1, 1832. ject io the sume duty as scrap iron; and non
thing shall be considered as old iron exceptar Mr. DICKERSDX, from the Committee on Manu- icles manufactured of iron, and so woru or in
factures, reported the following bill. jured by rust as to be of no use, except for the A BILL further to amend the several acts im. purpose of being remanufactured. All vessels posing Duties on Imports.
of cast iron, and all castings of iron, with han Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Redles, rings, houps, or uther additions of wrought presentatives of the Uniled States of America in iron, shall be subject to the same rate of duty Congress assembled, That, from and after the a3 such cast iron vessels or other castings, refirst day of January, one thousand eight hun spectively, are subject to. All iroa in pigs, dred and thirty-three, the credit on bonds to cast iron, and castings of iron, and anchors, and be given for duties on articles imported chain cables, shall remain at their present rates into the United States, shall be limited to uf duty; and no iron, or manufactures of iron, four calandrs months; and that, from and af shall be admitted at a less duty than twentyter the first day of January, one thousand eighi five per centum ad valorem. hundred and thirty-four, the duties upun all ar Suc. 5. And be il further enacted, That brown ticles imported into the United States shall be sugar shall remain ai the present rule of duty; paid on the enıry of the same at the custom and itsat all syrups, or other p eparations, liquid houses where they shall be entered.
ur dry, imported into the United Stales for the Sec. 2. And be il further enacted, That, from purpose of being converted into loaf, luinp, or and after the said first day of January, one bruwn sugar, ur of which loaf, lump, or brown
sugar are usually made, shall be rated by the duties on all manufacturi e of wool, or of weight, as loaf, lump, or brown sugar, as the which wool shall be a component part, (excase may be, and pay a duty accordingly, cept carpetings, blankets, worsted stuff gcols,
Sec. 6. And be il further enacted, That, from bombasins, hosiery, mits, gloves, caps, and and after the said first day of January, one bindings,) the actual value of which, at the thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, the place from whence imported, shall not exceed duties on bombasins, and all worsted Stuff fifty cents the square yard, there shall be a regoods, shall be fifteen per centum ad valorem; duction on the present rate of duty of ten peon linens, bleached and unbleached, fiteen percentum, for one year, and thereafter a further centum ad valorem ; on all silks from India, reduction of ten per centum upon such reduc
per centum ad valorem ; and on all other ed rate of duty. And all such manufactures, silks
per centum ad valorem ; and all except as aforesaid, the actual value of which, apothecaries' vials and bottles exceeding the at the place from whence imported, shall be capacity of six, and not exceeding the capacity more than fifty cents the square yard, and shall of sixteen ounces each, shall be subject to a nit exceed two dollars and fifty cents the square, duty of two dollars and twenty-five cents the yard, shall be deemed to have cost two dollars gr.ce; all perfumery and fancy vials and bot- a id fifty cents the square yard, and be chargetles, not exceeding the capacity of four ounces able thereon with the same duty now chargeeach, shall be subject to a duty of two dollars able upon such manufactures of the value of and fifty cents the groce; and those exceeding two dullars and fifty cents the square yard, for four ounces, and not exceeding sixteen ounces and until the first day of January, one thousand, each, shall be subject to a cuiy of three del- eight hundred and thirty-three; from and after lars and twenty five cents the groce.
which there shall be a reduction of ten per Sec. 7. And be itffurther enacted, That all centum upon such rate of duty, for one year, wines from France, which shall hereafter be and thereafter to a further reduction of ten per imported into the United States, or which have centum on such reduced rate of duty. And all been so imported since the seconił day of Feb. such manufactures, except as aforesaid, the ace ruary last, shall be subject to the following du. tual value of which, at the place whence im. ties, to wit : red wines to six cents the gillon, ported, shall exceed two dollars and fifiy cents in casks ; white wines to sen cents the gallon, the square yard, shall be subject to a duty of in casks; and all other sorts twenty-two cents forty five per centum ad valorem until the first the gallon, in bottles ; until the first day of day of January, one thousand eight hundred January, one thousand eight hundred and ihir- and thirty-three; frure and after which,' there ty-three ; and from and after that day, to half shall be a reduction on such rate of duty of ten those rates of duty, respectively. Ad from per centum, for one year, and thereafter a furand after the day last aforesaid, the duties upon ther reduction of ten per centum upon such reall wincs, except those of France, shall be reduced rate of duty: Provided, That, from and duced to one half their present rates of duty, after the said first day of January, one thousand respectively,
eight hundred and thirty-three, the duties upon "SEC. 8. And be it further enacted, That, all milled or fulled cloths and kerseys, of which from and after the passing of this act, the duly wool is the only material, the actual value of upon unwrought flas shall be five per centum which, at the place whence impor ed, shall not ad valorem; and from and after the first day of exceed thirty-three and one-third cents the January, one thousand eight hundred and thir, square yard, shall be five per centum ad valoa ty-three, the duty upon sail duck shall be ten rem, and no more.
Sec. 12. And be it further enacted, That, Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That, from and after the passing of this act, all artifrom and after the day last aforesaid, the duty cles of manufacture imported into the United on cotton bagging shall be four cents the square States, upon which drawbacks or bounties may yard, whatever may be the weight of it, and be allowed by the Government of the country whether imported under the denominations of in which such articles shall be manufactured, burlaps, Hessians, or any other game.
and from which the same shall be imported, Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That, shall be subject to duties over and above those from and after the day last aforesaid, the duty otherwise imposed by law, to the amount of upon unwrought hemp shall be
; such drawbacks or bounties, respectively; to and from and after the passing of this act, there be ascertained and levied under such regulashall be allowed a drawback on hemp manufactions as the Secretary of the Treasury shall, tured into tarred cordage, of three-fourths of from time to time, prescribe. the duty to which imported bemp is liable, whenever such cor lage shall be used in the rig. We observed, on the 11th, that Mr. BRANCH ging of vessels of the United States; and the of Norila Carolina, and Mr. John S. BARBOUR, Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized, of Virginia, have resumed their seats in the from time to time, to prescribe such regula- House of Representatives. Mr. BRANCH had Lions as may be necessary to carry this
provi. recently obtained leave of absence to proceed sion into effect.
to his own Stale; and Mr. BARBOUR, as we Sac. 11. And be it further enacted, That, stated a few
days since, was absent during the from and after the said first day of January, one carly part of the week, on account of sickness thousand eight hundred and thirty.ibree, upon in his family.
cents the square yard.
DEBATE ON TE TARIFF. gress, and given wiibout limitation, as to the
amount of revenue to be raised by it. That IN SENATE- Marca 2, 1832. amount is left to the discretion of Congress.
Again: the regulation of commerce with for. SPEECH OF ASHER ROBBINS,
eign nati ns is expressly given to Congress and Of Rhode ISLAND.
giver without restriction. Now, a lariff of du.
ties on imports is strictly and literally a regulaThe Senate resumed the consideration of the tion of commerce with foreign nations, and following resolution submitted by Mr. CLAY: whether that tariff shall be higher, or lower,
Resolved, that the existing duties upon ar- or what it shall be, must be a question of expe. ticles imported from foreign countries, and not diency, and cannot be a question of constitu. coming into competition with similar articles/tional right. made or produced within the United States, Besides, this power, as has been well stated, ought to be forth with abolished, except the and ably argued by the honorable gentleman duties on Wines and Silks, and that they ought from Tennessee, is essential to national soverto be reduced.
eignty; and 10 deny it to our Government Resolved, that the 'Committee on Finance would be, so far, to lay our country prostrate report a bill accordingly.
at the feet of every other sovereignty in the The f. llowing modification of the resolution, world. If all other sovereignties could wield proposed by Mr. Harne, being the question this power against us, (as, undoubtedly, they immediately before the Senate:
can, and do,) and we could not yield it against Strike out all after the word "countries,"libem in self' defence-but the supposition is, and insert as follows: " be so reduced that the intolerable, and I will not carry out the idea, amount of the public revenue shall be sufficient and depict the consequences. to defray the expenses of Government, accor. For what American, justly proud of his na. ding to their present scale, after the payment tion, could brook, for a moment, the idea of a of the public debt; and that, allowing a rea-crippled and subordinate sovereignty, that sonable time for the gradual reduction of the could not meet any other, and every other napresent high duties on th:e articles coming into tional sovereignty, with power against power, competition with similar articles made or pro- with prerogative agains prerogative, as an equal. duced within the United States, the duties be National sovereignties, whatever may be the ultimately equalized, so that the duties on no form of the national government, have all the article shall, as compared with the value of same attributes; otherwise, they would not be that article, vary, materially, from the general equal and independent sovereignties. God average.
furbid that this Government should ever admit Mr. ROBBINS, of Rhode Island, addressed the idea, or act upon the idea, of being an in. the Senate as follows:
ferior, and, therefore, a degraded sovereignty! The question before us, as I take it, is one If, then, you admit (and who will deny it?) that of expediency. Is it expedient to give to the our Goverument may exert this power against industry of the country the market of the coun other governments, to vindicate our equal and try, by means of protecting duties, in prefer- just rights, you give up the whole controversy; ence io leaving that market open to the equal for then you adınit the existence of the power competition of foreign industry without restric. in the Government. The power being admit, tion?
ted, its exercise, in all cases, must be regulated I know it has been urged here, and much by the discretion of Congress. insisted on elsewhere, that the expediency is How, then, 'I ask, can it be contended that, not the only question; that a prior and para, in exercising this power, Congress has usurpmount question is, has Congress the power, the ed undelegated power? constitutional power, to do this?
If, instead of saying this, you vary your lan. It is not denied that Congress has claimed (guage, and say, that Congress, in fixing a tariff
* and exercised this power, from the commence of duties on imports, with a view to protection, ment of the Government to this hour; that it is lias abused discretionary power, it brings the now in practical operation, and that never, till inquiry precisely to what I slated it to bemalt since 1828, has it been seriously, if at all, ques-inquiry as to the expediency of the protecting tioned, by any party, at any time.
policy. There are two or three reflections, which, And let it be recollected that the question is if duly weighed, I hould think would satisfy not, whether a new policy, and hitiserlo unevery reflecting mind that Congress, in exer- known to the Governmeni, shall now be adopcising this power, has not usurped undelegated ted; but whether a police, coeval with the Go. power.
vernment itself, which has now been pursued If the power of taxation ad libitum in amouni, for forty years and upwards, and with a gradu. be in Congress, the exercise of that power must ally increasing intensity; which is now in the be discretionary with Congress; and whether, full tide of experiment; with which interests, in any given instance, it shall be exercised, or almost too vast to be calculated, and hardly to to what extent it shall be exercised, must al. be conceived, have grown up and are interwo. ways be a question of exped ency, and never ven, and on which they are dependente can be a question of constitutional right. Now, question now is, whether this policy shall be the power of taxation is expressly given to Cou-l continued, or shall be abandoned? Though
this is really the question--though these con. faided by their peerless mental energies. La. sidera:ions carry with them an imposing weigh' bor-here lies the source of all wealth; this is towards set:ling the question-yet I am no the mine of all mines to work for its production, willing to rest it, and leave it to be decided on for its issues are unceasing and inexhaustible. these considerations: for I am convinced that To open and fully to develop this resource is the policy is the true policy of this country to strike upon the fountain of national wealth and that, if it had never been adopted, it ough:1-to open the spring-head of, and to realize, now to be adopted; that we are invited to it by the fabled Pactolus, whose copious and unfailother considerations that are irresistible. ing stream was a stream of gold. Nothing,
With your indulgence I will attempt, as nothing is so omnipotent in producing national briefly as I can, to lay before you the grounds wealth
as the labor of a nation profitably direct. of that conviction. In a m Itifarious and exed and fully developed. tremely complicated question, as one involving We shall all agree, I suppose, that it would effects immediate and remote, direct and con. be beneficial to the country to have all her re. sequential of a scheme of national policy, must sources fully developed; that the policy which be, it is difficult to say enough for demonstra- would have this effect is her trụe policy; that, tion, without saying ioo much for patient atten. if it be the only policy that could have this ef. tion. I will endeavor, however, to do the one, rect, it would be unwise not to adopt itand and to avoid, if possible, doing the other. Pero that, if the protecting be that very policy, it mit me to premise a few remarks.
ought to be continued. What, then, is the We have a great country, possessing great natural and necessary operation of the protecnatural resources, yet to be developed, and alting policy?-I mean if it be effectively followpeople, of all others the best fitted to developed out according to its principle, and to the - nation of freemen, animated with the spir-extent of ils principie. it
, and possessing all the energies of freedom; Its primary effect is to give to the country, remarkable for their intelligence, their activity, in time, and rapidly too, a body of manufactures and their enterprise; sagacious, inventive, and equal to the supply of the demand for all the fertile in resource; prompt and bold in adven. Wants of all the country; and beyond, for exture; ardent and indefatigable in pursuit. They portation to other countries, to an indefinite are a bive without drones; all are active, all on but very great amount. Already, though we the wing, every where, and ransacking every are but in the infancy of this policy, our export field that promises profit;' in a country tou of manufactures stands next in importance to where no mortmain, no perpetuities prevent the export of tobacco, and that is next in im. alienation and check circulation; where the ac. portance to coiton: cotton stands first. The cumulations of one generation are broken down export of manufactures, proceeding as they in the next by distribution; where every new have hitherto proceeded, will soon exceed in generation is made up of individuals thrown value that of tobacco. Perhaps it will not soon upon their own resources to make their way in rival in value the export of cotion; but if the the world for themselves; where there is no policy be not arrested, the day is coming when passport to distinction but eminent merit, and it will not only rival, but surpass in value the where that is an infallible passport; where the export of cotton, and stand at the head of our first abilities and the highest viriues connected, esport commerce. Let not this idea be thought whatever may be their birih, vindicale their extravagant. Look at the export commerce of way to the first places in society-to the high. England: vast as that is, nine-tenths of it are est honors of the nation.
made up of their manufactures, acquired by Now, what are those natural resources to be this very policy. developed by this people, so fitted to develop. Will it be pretended that we could have this them?" They are many; a few only of the body of manufactures without this policy? more prominent need now be indicated. There Pray, reflect for a moment, that, when the late is a cipital in our domain and its fertility; in its war and double duties secured to the industry mineral treasures, not yet fully explored, but of the country the market of the country for showing themselies in paris all over our coun. the supply of manufactures, they sprung up try, and boundless, in extent; its means of ar- on all sides, as it were by enchantment. But tificial power, by water and by steam, also when the war und double duties terminated, boundless, and every where diffused; a do they went down at once; and would have gone main more immense and more valuable than down for ever, but for the tariff of 1816; illus ever was possessed before by any other peo-trating the prodigious effect of complete prople
; a domain that combines ihe elements tection, and the prodigious difference between of a world within itself
; and when it shall be that and protection that is incomplete, and only Silled up with its happy millions, when all its judicious, as it is called; and illustrating, too, faculties shall be unfuided, will rival Europe, the necessity of protection to give birth o manwill not be less in numbers, and will be far su ufactures. In a country without manufactures, perior in condition. If our energies are 'di. what man, in the present state of the world, rected by our true policy, the rising generation would embark and hazard bis fortune in the will not all have passed away before these things underiaking to begin them, against the equal come. The infant born tv day may live to see competition of other countries, possessing eve. that
. Add to all this, our physical resource in /ry advantage over him, and ready, and willing, the labor of our great and growing population, and interested to crush the attempt! It would
be folly to think of it, for it would be inevitable country may have, and ought to have, will be ruin. In what instance, in modern and recent brought, as it were, to every mau's door. If times, I would ask, has any nation ever acquir. you doubt the magnitude of this market, do ed manufacturing riches without a protecting but reflect upon the demand they create upon policy? Why, the thing is impossible: in the your agriculture, your crops, your flocks, your nature of things it cannot be. Since 1816 our mines, and other agricultural treasures, for manufactures have increased, as the subsequent furnishing the raw material of their fabrics; and tariffs have increased the degree of protection; then for the supply of the wants of the whole and now they are advancing with rapid strides manufac'uring population; not stinted in their We have these manufacturing riches, then, by consumption of the necessaries of life, Decalise means of this policy; and without it we cannot not stinted in their means to afford them; and bave them.
you will doubt no longer. I should hope the Now, consider that, by acquiring these man-) honorable gentleman from Georgia would no ufactures, we have acquired a new and almost longer doubt. Wherever manufactures are boundless field for the profitable employment planted, they change the face of nature and of capital, made profitable to the owner, by the condition of the whole surrounding counemploying the labor of the country, in giving a try, and by means of the market they create. new value to the products of the country. Ask the agriculturists within the sphere of Why is commerce beneficial to the country, those markets to give up, this policy-you and why is it protected to such an immense might as well ask them to give up their free. expense as it is? It creates nothing; it only holds; you might tear them from the one as exchanges what has been created. It is bene easily as the other; and those of us who repreficial, because, and only because, it gives pro- sent them here, be assured, are far behind fitable employment to capital, and because them in zeal for its continuance. Why is it, that employment gives employment to the lathat, as manufactures have multiplied, and es. bor of the country. Now, whatever the rela- tended themselves, this policy has gained tive profits in capital may be in those two em- friends, and particularly with the agricultural ployments, (which must depend on times and population. It is because they have been circumstances,) it is certain that, in the employ, made to feel its benefits; it has made prosement of labor, the capital in manufactures, in lytes by conferring benefits. They see these proportion to the amount, fur outstrips the manufactures putiing every thing in motion capital in commerce.
around them, evoking and evolving all the dor: Now, can the different fields of business for mantenergies of place and society; the old and the profitable employment of capital and labor the young, females as well as males, all em. be too much multiplied in a country, for the ployed; it is one scene of universal activity. good and prosperity of the country? Is it not with the dawn of the sun the busy scene befor the good of the country that all its growing gins, nor is the sun more constant in bis course, capital should be profitably employed in the nor more regular in his return to it, than they business of the country, and should have the in and to theirs; contented, animated, and hapo means of profitable employment! And is not py, their gains make their labors light, and the the acquisition of every such new field, to the whole surrounding country rings with joy. extent of that field, a gain to the country? For niuch of our agriculture it makes the only
Consider, again, the demand which these market it can have; for all that produce, for manufactures make for the labor of the country: instance, that must be consumed at or near the and the effect of that labor in improving the place of its growth. For all that which admits condition of the lahoring classes, and 'in pro- of transportation and exportation, this policy, ducing and augmenting the national wealth. young as it is, has alre dy made this country: Are the laboring classes of this nation few in greater and better market than all the world numbers? In numbers, they far exceed all beside, except for the articles of tobacco and other classes put together. Is it no recommen, cotton. For cotton it affords a better market dation of this policy that it makes them happy, than any other country in the word, except while they make their country rich?
England; it affords a better market than Eng. This policy, then, will give us these manu. land did fifteen years ago, and in fifteen years factures as its primary effect. Now, what will hence it will afford a better market tiran Eng. be the effect of this effect--the effect, I mean, land now does. So late as 1819, our wbole of manufactures? In the first place it will be export of cotton was bui 87,000,000 lbs. The i to create a market for our agriculture; and that consumption by our manufactures now is 78,secured to our agriculture by the same policy 000,000 lbs. This country, by means of this - a market, the magnitude and effect of which, policy, is rapidly making for itself
, and within those who have not reflected upon the subject itself, a market equal to that of all Europe. can leave no adequate idea; a market sufficient I mean however, if it be aided by making and for all our agriculture as it now is, and all it completing the facilities of intercommunication may be hereafter, a market not confined to the of which the country is susceptible. The great sea board, and a few ports, but diffused all evil of our si'uation arises from what is its great over our country, wherever there is a water advantage-the immensity of our domain, and fall, wherever there is a bed of coal, wherever our dispersion over it. These improvements coal may be water borne; a market that, with would remove this evil, and leave ihis advan. the facilities of intercommunication which the stage unmixed. Then, with all the advantages