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vessel in default wherever and whenever found in the waters of the
United States. (July 26, 1892, sec. 2.)
Vessels of Nations Not Assimilated by Treaty to American Vessels.

No goods, wares, or merchandise, unless in cases provided for by treaty, shall be imported into the United States from any foreign port or place, except in vessels of the United States, or in such foreign vessels as truly and wholly belong to the citizens or subjects of that country of which the goods are the growth, production, or manufacture, or from which such goods, wares, or merchandise can only be, or most usually are, first shipped for transportation. All goods, wares, or merchandise imported contrary to this section, and the vessel wherein the same shall be imported, together with her cargo, tackle, apparel, and furniture, shall be forfeited to the United States; and such goods, wares, or merchandise, ship, or vessel, and cargo shall be liable to be seized, prosecuted, and condemned in like manner, and under the same regulations, restrictions, and provisions as have been heretofore established for the recovery, collection, distribution, and remission of forfeitures to the United States by the several revenue laws. (R. S. 2497; July 24, 1897, sec. 23; Oct. 3, 1913, IV, J, subsection 2. See p. 3, act of Mar. 4, 1915.)

The preceding section shall not apply to vessels or goods, wares, or merchandise imported in vessels of a foreign nation which does not maintain a similar regulation against vessels of the United States. (July 24, 1897, sec. 24; Aug. 5, 1909, sec. 17; Oct. 3, 1913, sec. IV, J, subsection 3. See p. 3, act of Mar. 4, 1915.) Discriminating Duties.

A discriminating duty of ten per centum ad valorem, in addition to the duties imposed by law, shall be levied, collected, and paid on all goods, wares, or merchandise which shall be imported in vessels not of the United States, or which being the production or manufacture of any foreign country not contiguous to the United States, shall come into the United States from such contiguous country; but this discriminating duty shall not apply to goods, wares, or merchandise which shall be imported in vessels, not of the United States entitled at the time of such importation by treaty or convention or act of Congress to be entered in the ports of the United States on payment of the same duties as shall then be payable on goods, wares, and merchandise imported in vessels of the United States, nor to such foreign products or manufactures as shall be imported from such continguous countries in the usual course of strictly retail trade. (R. S. 2502; Aug. 5, 1909, sec. 15; Oct. 3, 1913, sec. IV, J, subsection 1.) Retaliation (Revenue Act, Sept. 8, 1916).

Whenever during the existence of a war in which the United States is not engaged, the President shall be satisfied that there is reasonable ground to believe that under the laws, regulations, or practices of any country, colony, or dependency contrary to the law and practice of nations, the importation into their own or any other country, dependency, or colony of any article the product of the soil or industry of the United States and not injurious to health or morals is prevented or restricted the President is authorized and empowered

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to prohibit or restrict during the period such prohibition or striction is in force, the importation into the United States of similar or other articles, products of such country, dependency, or colony as in his opinion the public interest may require; and in such case he shall make proclamation stating the article or articles which are prohibited from importation into the United States; and any person or persons who shall import, or attempt or conspire to import, or be concerned in importing, such article or articles, into the United States contrary to the prohibition in such proclamation, shall be liable to a fine of not less than $2,000 nor more than $50,000, or to imprisonment not to exceed two years, or both, in the discretion of the court. The President may change, modify, revoke, or renew such proclamation in his discretion. (Sec. 805.)

Whenever, during the existence of a war in which the United States is not engaged, the President shall be satisfied that there is reasonable ground to believe that any vessel, American or foreign, is, on account of the laws, regulations, or practices of a belligerent Government, making or giving any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage in any respect whatsoever to any particular person, company, firm, or corporation, or any particular description of traffic in the United States or its possessions or to any citizens of the United States residing in neutral countries abroad, or is subjecting any particular person, company, firm, or corporation or any particular description of traffic in the United States or its possessions, or any citizens of the United States residing in neutral countries abroad to any undue or unreasonable prejudice, disadvantage, injury, or discrimination in regard to accepting, receiving, transporting, or delivering, or refusing to accept, receive, transfer, or deliver any cargo, freight or passengers, or in any other respect whatsoever, he is hereby authorized and empowered to direct the detention of such vessels by withholding clearance or by formal notice forbidding departure, and to revoke, modify, or renew any such direction.

That whenever, during the existence of a war in which the United States is not engaged, the President shall be satisfied that there is reasonable ground to believe that under the laws, regulations, or practices of any belligerent country or Government, American ships or American citizens are not accorded any of the facilities of commerce which the vessels or citizens of that belligerent country enjoy in the United States or its possessions, or are not accorded by such belligerent equal privileges or facilities of trade with vessels or citizens of any nationality other than that of such belligerent, the President is hereby authorized and empowered to withhold clearance from one or more vessels of such belligerent country until such belligerent shall restore to such American vessels and American citizens reciprocal liberty of commerce and equal facilities of trade; or the President may direct that similar privileges and facilities, if any, enjoyed by vessels or citizens of such belligerent in the United States or its possessions be refused to vessels or citizens of such belligerent; and in such case he shall make proclamation of his direction, stating the facilities and privileges which shall be refused, and the belligerent to whose vessels or citizens they are to be refused, and thereafter the furnishing of such prohibited privileges and facilities to any vessel or citizen of the belligerent named in such proclamation shall be unlawful; and he may change, modify, revoke, or renew such proclamation; and any person or persons who shall furnish or attempt or conspire to furnish or be concerned in furnishing or in the concealment of furnishing facilities or privileges to ships or persons contrary to the prohibition in such proclamation shall be liable to a fine of not less than $2,000 nor more than $50,000 or to imprisonment not to exceed two years, or both, in the discretion of the court.

In case any vessel which is detained by virtue of this Act shall depart or attempt to depart from the jurisdiction of the United States without clearance or other lawful authority, the owner or master or person or persons having charge or command of such vessel shall be several y liable to a fine of not less than $2,000 nor more than $10,000, or to imprisonment not to exceed two years, or both, and in addition such vessel shall be forfeited to the United States.

That the President of the United States is hereby authorized and empowered to employ such part of the land or naval forces of the United States as shall be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. (Sept. 8, 1916, sec. 806.)

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Clearance.

The master or person having the charge or command of any vessel bound to a foreign port, shall deliver to the collector of the district from which such vessel is about to depart, a manifest ? of all the cargo on board the same, and the value thereof, by him subscribed, and shall swear to the truth thereof; whereupon the collector shall grant a clearance for such vessel and her cargo, but without specifying the particulars thereof in the clearance, unless required by the master or other person having the charge or command of such vessel so to do. If any vessel bound to a foreign port departs on her voyage to such foreign port without delivering such manifest and obtaining a clearance, as hereby required, the master or other person having the charge or command of such vessel shall be liable to a penalty of five hundred dollars for every such offense. (R. S. 4197; Apr. 29, 1902. See act of June 15, 1917, Title V, sec. '4,.

P. 338.)

Master's Oath.

The oath to be taken by the master or commander of the vessel shall be as follows:

District of

I, (insert the name), master or commander of the (insert the denomination and name of the vessel), bound from the port of (insert the name of the port or place sailing from) to (insert the name of the port or place bound to), do solemnly, sincerely, and truly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that the manifest of the cargo on board the said (insert denomination and name of the vessel), now delivered by me to the collector of this district, and subscribed with my name, contains, according to the best of my knowledge and belief, a full, just, and true account of all the goods, wares, and merchandise now actually laden on board the said vessel, and of the value thereof; and if any other goods, wares, or merchandise shall be laden or put on board the said insert denomination and name of vessel) previous to her sailing from this port, I will immediately re

: Vessel's manifest.

port the same to the said collector. I do also swear (or affirm) that I verily believe the duties on all the foreign merchandise therein specified have been paid or secured, according to law, and that no part thereof is intended to be relanded within the United States, and that if by distress or other unavoidable accident it shall become necessary to reland the same, I will forthwith make a just and true report thereof to the collector of the customs of the district wherein such distress or accident may happen. So help me God. (R. S. 4198; Apr. 29, 1902. See act of June 15, 1917, Title V, sec. 4, p. 338.) Form of Outward Manifest.

The form of the report and manifest to be delivered to the collector shall be as follows: Report and manifest of the cargo laden at the port of

on board the master, bound for

port

Marks

Numbers

Packages or articles in

bulk

Contents or quantities

Value at the port of

exportation

(R. S., 4199; Apr. 29, 1902.) Before a clearance shall be granted for any vessel bound to a foreign port, the owners, shippers, or consignors of the cargo of such vessel shall deliver to the collector manifests? of the cargo, or the parts thereof shipped by them respectively, and shall verify the same by oath. Such manifests shall specify the kinds and quantities of the articles shipped respectively, and the value of the total quantity of each kind of articles; and the oath to each manifest shall state that it contains a full, just, and true account of all articles laden on board of such vessel by the owners, shippers, or consignors, respectively, and that the values of such articles are truly stated, according to their actual cost, or the values which they truly bear at the port and time of exportation. And before a clearance shall be granted for any such vessel, the master of that vessel, and the owners, shippers, and consignors of the cargo, shall state, upon oath, to the collector, the foreign port or country in which such cargo is truly intended to be landed. The oaths shall be taken and subscribed in writing. (R. S. 4200; Apr. 29, 1902. See act of June 15, 1917, Title V, sec. 4.) Form of Clearance.

The form of a clearance, to be granted to a ship or vessel on her departure to a foreign port or place, shall be as follows: District of

Port of These are to certify all whom it doth concern, that master or commander of the

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tons, or thereabouts,

* Shippers' manifests or export declarations.

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