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of the Chief of Engineers; And provided further, That nothing
herein contained shall be held to apply to the Panama Canal. (July
5, 1884, sec. 4; Mar. 3, 1909, sec. 6.)
Anchorage Grounds.

The Secretary of War is hereby, authorized, empowered, and directed to define and establish anchorage grounds for vessels in all harbors, rivers, bays, and other navigable waters of the United States whenever it is manifest to the said Secretary that the maritime or commercial interests of the United States require such anchorage grounds for safe navigation and the establishment of such anchorage grounds shall have been recommended by the Chief of Engineers, and to adopt suitable rules and regulations in relation thereto; and such rules and regulations shall be enforced by the Coast Guard under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury: Provided, That at ports or places where there is no Coast Guard cutter available such rules and regulations may be enforced by the Chief of Engineers under the direction of the Secretary of War. In the event of the violation of any such rules and regulations by the owner, master, or person in charge of any vessel, such owner, master, or person in charge of such vessel shall be liable to a penalty of $100; and the said vessel may be holden for the payment of such penalty, and may be seized and proceeded against summarily by libel for the recovery of the same in any United States district court for the district within which such vessel may be and in the name of the officer designated by the Secretary of War. (Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 7.)

That hereafter the Commissioner of Lighthouses shall provide, establish, and maintain, out of the annual appropriations for the Lighthouse Service, buoys or other suitable marks for marking anchorage grounds for vessels in waters of the United States, when such anchorage grounds have been defined and established by proper authority in accordance with the laws of the United States. (Sept. 15, 1922.)

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Improvements by Private or Municipal Corporations.

Any person or persons, corporations, municipal or private, who desire to improve any navigable river, or any part thereof, at their or its own expense and risk may do so upon the approval of the plans and specifications of said proposed improvement by the Secretary of War and Chief of Engineers of the Army. The plan of said improvement must conform with the general plan of the Government improvements, must not impede navigation, and no toll shall be imposed on account thereof, and said improvement shall at all times be under the control and supervision of the Secretary of War and Chief of Engineers. (June 13, 1902.) Bridges, Dams, and Dikes.

When, hereafter, authority is granted by Congress to any persons to construct and maintain a bridge across or over any of the navigable waters of the United States, such bridge shall not be built or commenced until the plans and specifications for its construction, together with such drawings of the proposed construction and such map of the proposed location as may be required for a full understanding of the subject, have been submitted to the Secretary of War and Chief of Engineers for their approval, nor until they shall have approved such plans and specifications and the location of such bridge and accessory works; and when the plans for any bridge to be constructed under the provisions of this Act have been approved by the Chief of Engineers and by the Secretary of War it shall not be lawful to deviate from such plans, either before or after completion of the structure, unless the modification of such plans has previously been submitted to and received the approval of the Chief of Engineers and of the Secretary of War. (Sec. 1.)

No bridge erected or maintained under the provisions of this Act shall at any time unreasonably obstruct the free navigation of the waters over which it is constructed, and if any bridge erected in accordance with the provisions of this Act shall, in the opinion of the Secretary of War, at any time unreasonably obstruct such navigation, either on account of insufficient height, width of span, or otherwise, or if there be difficulty in passing the draw opening

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or the draw span of such bridge by rafts, steamboats, or other water craft, it shall be the duty of the Secretary of War, after giving the parties interested reasonable opportunity to be heard, to notify the persons owning or controlling such bridge to so alter the same as to render navigation through or under it reasonably free, easy, and unobstructed, stating in such notice the changes required to be made, and prescribing in each case a reasonable time in which to make such changes, and if at the end of the time so specified the changes so required have not been made, the persons owning or controlling such bridge shall be deemed guilty of a violation of this Act; and all such alterations shall be made and all such obstructions shall be removed at the expense of the persons owning or operating said bridge. The persons owning or operating any such bridge shall maintain, at their own expense, such lights and other signals thereon as the Secretary of Commerce shall prescribe. If the bridge shall be constructed with a draw, then the draw shall be opened promptly by the persons owning or operating such bridge upon reasonable signal for the passage of boats and other water craft. If tolls shall be charged for the transit over any bridge constructed under the provisions of this Act, of engines, cars, street cars, wagons, carriages, vehicles, animals, foot passengers, or other passengers, such tolls shall be reasonable and just, and the Secretary of War may, at any time, and from time to time, prescribe the reasonable rates of toll for such transit over such bridge, and the rates so prescribed shall be the legal rates and shall be the rates demanded and received for such transit. (Sec. 4.)

Any persons who shall fail or refuse to comply with the lawful order of the Secretary of War or the Chief of Engineers, made in accordance with the provisions of this Act, shall be deemed guilty of a violation of this Act, and any persons who shall be guilty of a violation of this Act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished in any court of competent jurisdiction by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, and every month such persons shall remain in default shall be deemed a new offense and subject such persons to additional penalties therefor; and in addition to the penalties above described the Secretary of War and the Chief of Engineers may, upon refusal of the persons owning or controlling any such bridge and accessory works to comply with any lawful order issued by the Secretary of War or Chief of Engineers in regard thereto, cause the removal of such bridge and accessory works at the expense of the persons owning or controlling such bridge, and suit for such expense may be brought in the name of the United States against such persons, and recovery had for such expense in any court of competent jurisdiction; and the removal of any structures erected or maintained in violation of the provisions of this Act or the order or direction of the Secretary of War or Chief of Engineers made in pursuance thereof may be enforced by injunction, mandamus, or other summary, process, upon application to the district court in the district in which such' structure may, in whole or in part, exist, and proper proceedings to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States at the request of the Secretary of War; and in case of any litigation arising from any obstruction or alleged obstruc

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tion to navigation created by the construction of any bridge under this Act, the cause or question arising may be tried before the district court of the United States in any district which any portion of said obstruction or bridge touches. (Mar. 23, 1906, sec. 5.)

When authority has been or may hereafter be granted by Congress, either directly or indirectly or by any official or officials of the United States, to any persons, to construct and maintain a dam for water power or other purpose across or in any of the navigable waters of the United States, such dam shall not be built or commenced until the plans and specifications for such dam and all accessory works, together with such drawings of the proposed construction and such map of the proposed location as may be required for a full understanding of the subject, have been submitted to the Secretary of War and the Chief of Engineers for their approval, nor until they shall have approved such plans and specifications and the location of such dam and accessory works; and when the plans and specifications for

any dam to be constructed under the provisions of this Act have been approved by the Chief of Engineers and by the Secretary of War it shall not be lawful to deviate from such plans or specifications either before or after completion of the structure unless the modification of such plans or specifications has previously been submitted to and received the approval of the Chief of Engineers and of the Secretary of War: Provided, That in approving the plans, specifications, and location for any dam, such conditions and stipulations may be imposed as the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of War may deem necessary to protect the present and future interests of the United States, which may include the condition that the persons constructing or maintaining such dam shall construct, maintain, and operate, without expense to the United States, in connection with any dam and accessory or appurtenant works, a lock or locks, booms, sluices, or any other structure or structures which the Secretary of War and the Chief of Engineers or Congress at any time may deem necessary in the interests of navigation, in accordance with such plans as they may approve, and also that whenever Congress shall authorize the construction of a lock or other structures for navigation purposes in connection with such dam, the persons owning such dam shall convey to the United States, free of cost, title to such land as may be required for such constructions and approaches, and shall grant to the United States free water power or power generated from water power for building and operating such constructions: Provided further, That in acting upon said plans as aforesaid the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of War shall consider the bearing of said structure upon a comprehensive plan for the improvement of the waterway over which it is to be constructed with a view to the

promotion of its navigable quality and for the full development of water power; and, as a part of the conditions and stipulations imposed by them, shall provide for improving and developing navigation, and fix such charge or charges for the privilege granted as may be sufficient to restore conditions with respect to navigability as existing at the time such privilege be granted or reimburse the United States for doing the same, and for such additional or further expense as may be incurred by the United States with reference to such project, including the cost of any investigations necessary for approval of plans and of such supervision of construction as may be necessary in the interests of the United States: Provided further, That the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of War are hereby authorized and directed to fix and collect just and proper charge or charges for the privilege granted to all dams authorized and constructed under the provisions of this Act which shall receive any direct benefit from the construction, operation, and maintenance by the United States of storage reservoirs at the headwaters of any navigable streams, or from the acquisition, holding, and maintenance of any forested watershed, or lands located by the United States at the headwaters of any navigable stream, wherever such shall be, for the development, improvement, or preservation of navigation in such streams in which such dams may be constructed. (Sec. 1.)

The right is hereby reserved to the United States to construct, maintain, and operate, in connection with any dam built in accordance with the provisions of this Act, a suitable lock or locks, booms, sluices, or any other structures for navigation purposes, and at all times to control the said dam and the level of the pool caused by said dam to such an extent as may be necessary to provide proper facilities for navigation. (Sec. 2.)

The persons constructing, maintaining, or operating any dam or appurtenant or accessory works, in accordance with the provisions of this Act shall be liable for any damage that may be inflicted thereby upon private property, either by overflow or otherwise. The person owning or operating any such dam, or accessory works, subject to the provisions of this Act, shall maintain, at their own expense, such lights and other signals thereon and such fishways as the Secretary of Commerce shall prescribe, and for failure so to do in any respect shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to a fine of not less than five hundred dollars, and each month of such failure shall constitute a separate offense and subject such persons to additional penalties therefor. (Sec. 3.)

All rights acquired under this Act shall cease and be determined if the person, company, or corporation acquiring such rights shall, at any time, fail after receiving reasonable notice thereof, to comply with any of the provisions and requirements of the Act, or with any of the stipulations and conditions that may be prescribed as aforesaid by the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of War, including the payment into the Treasury of the United States of the charges provided for by section one of this Act: Prorided, That Congress may revoke any rights conferred in pursuance of this Act whenever it is necessary for public use, and, in the event of any such revocation by Congress, the United States shall pay the owners of any dam and appurtenant works built under authority of this Act, as full compensation, the reasonable value thereof, exclusive of the value of the authority or franchise granted, such reasonable value to be determined by mutual agreement between the Secretary of War and the said owners, and in case they can not agree, then by przedings instituted in the United States district court for the condemnation of such properties: drid prorided also. That the autherity granted under or in pursuance of the prorisions of this Act shall terminate at the end of a period not to exceed fifty years from the date of the original approral of the project under this Act, unless owner revoked as herein provided or Congress shall

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