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naturalized, and a statement of the applicant, verified before a consul or other officer of the United States authorized to administer an oath, setting forth the reasons for not appearing in person; and upon receiving the same the board of local inspectors that originally issued such license shall renew the same and shall notify the applicant of such renewal: Provided further, That no license as master, mate, or pilot of any class of vessel shall be renewed without fur: nishing a satisfactory certificate of examination as to color blindness. And in all cases where the issue is the suspension or revocation of such licenses, whether before the local boards of inspectors (of steam vessels), as provided for in section forty-four hundred and fifty of the Revised Statutes, or before the supervising inspector, as provided for in section forty-four hundred and fifty-two of the Revised Statutes, the accused shall be allowed to appear by counsel and to testify in his own behalf. (May 28, 1896, sec. 2; Oct. 22, 1914.) Service During War.

No master, mate, pilot, or engineer of steam vessels licensed under title fifty-two [R. S. 4399–4500] of the Revised Statutes shall be liable to draft in time of war, except for the performance of duties such as required by his license; and while performing such duties in the service of the United States every such master, mate, pilot, or engineer shall be entitled to the highest rate of wages paid in the merchant marine of the United States for similar services; and, if killed or wounded while performing such duties under the United States, they, or their heirs or their legal representatives, shall be entitled to all privileges accorded to soldiers and sailors serving in the Army and Navy under the pension laws of the United States. (May 28, 1896, sec. 2.) Officer's License.

The boards of local inspectors shall license and classify the masters, chief mates, and second and third mates, if in charge of a watch, engineers, and pilots of all steam vessels, and the masters of sail vessels of over seven hundred gross tons, and all other vessels of over one hundred gross tons carrying passengers for hire. It shall be unlawful to employ any person, or for any person to serve, as a master, chief mate, engineer, or pilot of any steamer or as master of any sail vessel of over seven hundred gross tons, or of any other vessel of over one hundred gross tons carrying passengers for hire, who is not licensed by the inspectors; and anyone violating this section shall be liable to a penalty of one hundred dollars for each offense. (R. S. 4438; Dec. 21, 1898; Jan. 25, 1907; May 28, 1908, sec. 2. See act June 9, 1910, p. 243.)

Every master, mate, engineer, and pilot who shall receive a license shall, when employed upon any vessel, within forty-eight hours after going on duty, place his certificate of license, which shall be framed under glass, in some conspicuous place in such vessel, where it can be seen by passengers and others at all times: Provided, That in case of emergency such officer may be transferred to another vessel of the same owners for a period not exceeding forty-eight hours without the transfer of his license to such other vessel; and for every neglect to comply with this provision by any such master, mate, engi

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neer, or pilot he shall be subject to a fine of one hundred dollars, or to the revocation of his license. (R. S. 4446; Feb. 19, 1907. See act June 9, 1910, p. 243.) Master's License.

Whenever any person applies to be licensed as master of any steam vessel, or of a sail vessel of over seven hundred tons, the inspectors shall make diligent inquiry as to his character, and shall carefully examine the applicant as well as the proofs which he presents in support of his claim, and if they are satisfied that his capacity, experience, habits of life, and character are such as warrant the belief that he can safely be intrusted with the duties and responsibilities of the station for which he makes application, they shall grant him a license authorizing him to discharge such duties on any such vessel for the term of five years; but such license shall be suspended or revoked upon satisfactory proof of bad conduct, intemperate habits, incapacity, inattention to his duties, or the willful violation of any provisions of this title [R. S. 4399–4500] applicable to him. (R. Š. 4439; Dec. 21, 1898, sec. 2. See act June 9, 1910, p. 243.) Mate's License.

Whenever any person applies for authority to be employed as chief mate of ocean or coastwise steam vessels or of sail vessels of over seven hundred tons, or as second or third mate of ocean or coastwise steam vessels, who shall have charge of a watch, or whenever any person applies for authority to be employed as mate of river steamers, the inspectors shall require satisfactory evidence of the knowledge, experience, and skill of the applicant in lading cargo and in handling and stowage of freight, and if for license as chief mate on ocean or coastwise steamers, or of sail vessels of over seven hundred tons, or as second or third mate of ocean or coastwise steamers, who shall have charge of a watch, shall also examine him as to his knowledge and ability in navigation and managing such vessels and all other duties pertaining to his station, and if satisfied of his qualifications and good character they shall grant him a license authorizing him to perform such duties for the term of five years upon the waters upon which he is found qualified to act; but such license shall be suspended or revoked upon satisfactory proof of bad conduct, intemperate habits, unskillfulness, or want of knowledge of the duties of his station or the willful violation of any provision of this title [R. S. 4399–4500). (R. S. 4440; Dec. 21, 1898, sec. 3. See act June 9, 1910, p. 243.) Engineer's License.

Whenever any person applies for authority to perform the duties of engineer of any steam vessel, the inspectors shall examine the applicant as to his knowledge of steam machinery and his experience as an engineer, and also the proofs which he produces in support of his claim; and if, upon full consideration, they are satisfied that his character, habits of life, knowledge, and experience in the duties of an engineer are all such as to authorize the belief that he is a suitable and safe person to be intrusted with the powers and duties of such a station, they shall grant him a license, authorizing him to be employed in such duties for the term of five years, in which they shall

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assign him to the appropriate class of engineers; but such license shall be suspended or revoked upon satisfactory proof of negligence, unskillfulness, intemperance, or the willful violation of any provision of this Title [R. S. 4399–4500]. Whenever complaint is made against any engineer holding a license authorizing him to take charge of the boilers and machinery of any steamer, that he has, through negligence or want of skill, permitted the boilers in his charge to burn or otherwise become in bad condition, or that he has not kept his engine and machinery in good working order, it shall be the duty of the inspectors, upon satisfactory proof of such negligence or want of skill, to revoke the license of such engineer and assign him to a lower grade or class of engineers, if they find him fitted therefor. (R. S. 4441; May 28, 1896. See act June 9, 1910, p. 243.) Pilot's License.

Whenever any person claiming to be a skillful pilot of steam vessels offers himself for a license, the inspectors shall make diligent inquiry as to his character and merits, and if satisfied, from personal examination of the applicant, with the proof that he offers that he possesses the requisite knowledge and skill, and is trustworthy and faithful, they shall grant him a license for the term of five years to pilot any such vessel within the limits prescribed in the license; but such license shall be suspended or revoked upon satisfactory evidence of negligence, unskillfulness, inattention to the duties of his station, or intemperance, or the willful violation of any provision of this title [R. S. 4399–4500). (R. S. 4442; May 28, 1896. See act June 9, 1910, p. 243.) Master or Mate Acting as Pilot.

Where the master or mate is also pilot of the vessel, he shall not be required to hold two licenses to perform such duties, but the license issued shall state on its face that he is authorized to act in such double capacity. (R. S. 4443. See act June 9, 1910, p. 243.) Oath of Officer.

Every master, chief mate, engineer, and pilot, who receives a license, shall, before entering upon his duties, make oath before one of the inspectors herein provided for, to be recorded with the certificate, that he will faithfully and honestly, according to his best skill and judgment, without concealment or reservation, perform all the duties required of him by law. (R. S. 4445.)

Every applicant for license as either master, mate, pilot, or engineer under the provisions of this title [R. S. 4399–4500] shall make and subscribe to an oath or affirmation, before one of the inspectors referred to in this title, to the truth of all the statements set forth in his application for such license.

Any person who shall make or subscribe to any oath or affirmation authorized in this title and knowing the same to be false shall be deemed guilty of perjury.

Every licensed master, mate, pilot, or engineer who shall change, by addition, interpolation, or erasure of any kind, any certificate or license issued by any inspector or inspectors referred to in this title shall, for every such offense, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars or by imprisonment at hard labor for a term not exceeding three years. (Mar. 23, 1900.)

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Removal of Master.

Any person or body corporate having more than one-half ownership of any vessel shall have the same power to remove a master, who is also part owner of such vessel, as such majority owners have to remove a master not an owner. This section shall not apply where there is a valid written agreement subsisting by virtue of which such master would be entitled to possession. (R. S. 4250.)

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Definitions.
Exemption from militia duty-
Naturalization

and

citizenship of seamen. Shipping officers_ Illegal shipments_Owners or masters may ship seamen

in certain cases-Apprentices--Agreement to ship in foreign trade-l'eriod of engagement-Penalty for shipment without agree

ment-
Shipment in foreign ports before

consuls.
Crew list.
Failure to produce crew-
Papers relating to crew-
Shipment of seamen in the coasting

or near-by foreign trade--Agreement in coasting trade not

before commissioner
Agreement with fishermen.
Discharge in foreign trade-
Discharge in foreign ports--
Wages.-
Vessels exempt from libel for wages-
Advances and allotments of wages--
Wages and clothing exempt from

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Desertion of seamen abroad..
Repeal of treaties and conventions--
Arbitration before sbipping commis-

sioner
Soliciting lodgers--
Return of seamen from foreign ports,

Alaska, and insular ports
Effects of deceased seamen.
Offenses and punishments.
Corporal punishment prohibited.
Procedure
Form of articles of agreement.
Account of apprentices on board.
Scale of provisions to be allowed and

served out to crew during the voy

age
Certificate of discharge-
Sick and disabled seamen.
Jurisdiction over American seamen

in foreign ports and foreign sea

men in American ports--
Seamen's witness fees.
Manning of merchant vessels.
Undermanning
Fellow-servant clause.
Merchant seamen at Panama Canal

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Definitions.

In the construction of this Title [Title LIII, Merchant Seamen, R.S. 4501-4613], every person having the command of any vessel belonging to any citizen of the United States shall be deemed to be the “master” thereof; and every person (apprentices excepted) who shall be employed or engaged to serve in any capacity on board the same shall be deemed and taken to be a seaman", and the term “ vessel” shall be understood to comprehend every description of vessel navigating on any sea or channel, lake or river, to which the provisions of this Title may be applicable, and the term "owner shall be taken and understood to comprehend all the several persons, if more than one, to whom the vessel shall belong. (R. S. 4612.) Exemption from Militia Duty.

Pilots, mariners actually employed in the sea service of any citizen or merchant within the United States, shall be exempt from militia duty without regard to age, and all persons who because of religious belief shall claim exemption from military service, if the conscientious holding of such belief by such person shall be established under such regulations as the President shall prescribe, shall be exempted from militia service in a combatant capacity; but no person so exempted shall be exempt from militia service in any capacity that the President shall declare to be noncombatant. (June 3, 1916, sec. 59.)

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