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to Arundell, “ to move the Doctor to come over again to see Mr. C.,” but the Doctor was absent; that he prayed for him in private, and in public, and paid him every attention. He goes on :
“From my first visitation (C. might well call it so) of Mr. Chillingworth, to the last, I did not find him in a condition which might any way move me, (had I been his deadly enemy,) either to flatter or envy him, but rather, to pity and pray for him, as you see I did.”
But the point in which Cheynell seems to be most anxious to acquit himself of all uncharitableness, is “ the business of his farewell.” “ Let us,” he says, (if you please)
" take a view of all our proceedings, and of Master Chillingworth's opinions, and then, (I'am afraid) some will say, there was a little foolish pity showed on my part, and the uncharitableness will be found in them only, who censure me for want of charity.
“ First, there were all things which may any way appertain to the civility of a farewell, though there was nothing which belongs to the superstition of a farewell. His body was decently laid in a convenient coffin, covered with a mourning hearse-cloth, more seemly (as I conceive) than the usual covering, patched up out of the mouldy reliques of some oth-eaten copes. His friends were entertained (according to their own desire,) with wine and cakes; though that is, in my conceit, a turning of the house of mourning into a house of banqueting. All that offered themselves to carry his
corpse tion, because they were of his persuasion, had every one of them (according to the custom of the country,) a branch of rosemary, a mourning ribband, and a pair of gloves. But, (as it doth become an impartial historian,) I confess there were three opinions concerning his burial.
“ The first opinion was negative and peremptory, that he ought not to be buried like a Christian. 1. Who refused to make a full and free confession of the Christian religion. 2. Nay, if there had been nothing else against him, but his taking up of arms against his country, that they conceived a sufficient reason to deny the burial of his corpse.
The truth is, we looked upon Master Chillingworth as a kind of non-conformist; nay; (to speak strictly,) a recusant rather than a non-conformist;
and, though he did make scru-ple of subscribing the truth of one or two propositions, yet, he thought himself fit enough to maintain, that those who do subscribe them are in a saveable condition. You see, Master Chillingworth did refuse to subscribe. What think ye, (gentlemen,) are not Chichester men pretty good disputants? Can you confute these reasons? If you can, do your best; if you cannot, I have no reason to prompt you ; scratch your heads, beat your desks, bite your nails, and I will go sleep, and will not hear what they said of Master Chillingworth's Argument on Fielding's case.
“ The second opinion, was your opinion, and the opinion of such as you are, my good friends at Athens; the men of a cathedral spirit thought fit that Master Chillingworth, being a member of a cathedral, should be buried in the cathedral, &c.
“The third opinion (which prevailed) was this, that it would be fittest to permit the men of his own persuasion, out of mere humanity, to bury their dead out of our sight; and to bury him in the cloisters, amongst the old Shavelings, Monks, and Priests, of whom he had so good an opinion all his life.”
After having pursued the subject through several pages, discussing with surprising gravity and profound learning several knotty points connected with funerals, -proving, that he was unjustly charged with a want of charity towards the deceased ; and that the balance was entirely on the other side; he thus draws to a conclusion:
“ Finally, it was favour enough to permit Master Chillingworth's disciples or followers, the men of his persuasion, to perform this last office to their friend and master. Now, there was free liberty granted to all the malignants in the city to attend the hearse, and inter his corpse. Sure I am, that if Mr. Chillingworth had been as orthodox and zealous a preacher as John the Baptist was, he might have had as honourable a burial as John the Baptist had; for all the honour that John had, was to be buried by his own disciples, Matt. xiv. 12. If the doctrine of this eminent scholar was heretical, and his disciples were malignants, I am not guilty of that difference. As devout Stephen was carried to his burial by devout men, so is it just and equal that malignants should carry malignants to their grave. By malignants, I mean such kind of men who join with the enemy, or are willing upon any occasion offered to join with him, to promote the antichristian design now on foot; those, and only those, I call malignants."
We now come to the last strange act of this divine, Cheynell's speech at the grave of Chillingworth, which we should betray our duty by not giving entire.
“ When the malignants brought the hearse to the burial, I met them at the grave with Master Chillingworth's book in my hand; at the burial of which book, I conceived it fit to make this little speech following.
“ A Speech made at the Funeral of Mr. Chillingworth's mortal Book.
Brethren,-it was the earnest desire of that eminent scholar, whose body lies here before you, that his corpse might be interred according to the rites and customs approved in the English Liturgy, and in most places of the kingdom heretofore received: but his second request (in case that were denied him) was, that he might be buried in
this city, after such a manner as might be obtained, in these times of unhappy difference and bloody wars. His first request is denied for many reasons, of which you may be ignorant. It is too well known, that he was once a professed Papist, and a grand seducer; he perverted divers persons of considerable rank and quality ; and I have good cause to believe, that his return to England, commonly called his conversion, was but a false and pretended conversion. And for my own part, I am fully convinced, that he did not live or die a genuine son of the church of England ; I retain the usual phrase, that you may know what I mean; I mean, he was not of that faith or religion, which is established by law in England. He hath left that phantasie, which he called his religion, upon record in this subtile book. He was not ashamed to print and publish this destructive tenet, 'that there is no necessity of Church or Scripture to make men faithful men,' in the hundredth page of this unhappy book, and therefore, I refuse to bury him myself; yet, let his friends and followers, who have attended his hearse to this Golgotha, know, that they are permitted, out of mere humanity, to bury their dead out of our sight. If they please to undertake the burial of his corpse, I shall undertake to bury his errors, which are published in this so much admired, yet unworthy book; and happy would it be for this kingdom, if this book and all its fellows could be so buried, that they might never rise more, unless it were for a confutation; and happy would it have been for the author, if he had repented of those errors, that they might never rise for his condemnation. Happy, thrice happy will he be, if his works do not follow him, if they do never rise with him, nor against him.
“ Get thee gone then, thou cursed book, which hast seduced so many precious souls ; get thee gone, thou corrupt rotten book, earth to earth, and dust to dust ; get thee gone into the place of rottenness, that thou may'st rot with thy author, and see corruption. So much for the burial of his errors.
“ Touching the burial of his corpse, I need say no more than this : it will be most proper for the men of his persuasion to commit the body of their deceased friend, brother, master, to the dust; and, it will be most proper for me to hearken to that counsel of my Saviour, Luke ix. 60. Let the dead bury their dead, but go thou and preach the kingdom of God. And so I went from the grave to the pulpit, and preached on that text to the congregation."
We fear we must acknowledge, that this extraordinary speech, and the action that accompanied it, breathe a spirit of bigotry, which will go hard against our author, in the minds of our readers. Yet, we are prepared to believe in the sincerity with which he a little farther on declares.
“ I dare boldly say, that I have been more sorrowful for Master Chillingworth, and merciful to him, than his friends at Oxford: bis sickness and obstinacy cost me many a prayer, and many a tear.”
Cheynell proceeds to pay a parting compliment to the
strong parts"and" eminent gifts," the“ learning and diligence," the “ acuteness and eloquence," of the unhappy deceased, and then breaks forth into the following extraordinary strain.
“Howle ye firre trees, for a cedar is fallen! lament ye Sophisters, for the master of sentences, (shall I say) or fallacies is vanished: wring your hands, and beat your breasts, ye anti-christian engineers, for your arch-engineer is dead, and all his engines buried with him. Ye daughters of Oxford weep over Chillingworth, for he had a considerable and hopeful project how to clothe you and himself in scarlet, and other delights. I am distressed for thee, my brother Chillingworth, (may his executrix say) very pleasant hast thou been unto me, thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of father, husband, brother. O, how are the mighty fallen, and the weapons, nay engines of war, perished! O, tell it not in Gath, that he who raised a battery against the Pope's chair,that he might place reason in that chair instead of Antichrist, is dead and gone: publish it not in the streets of Askelon, that he who did at once batter Rome, and undermine England, the reforming church of England, that he might prevent a reformation, is dead; lest if you publish it, you puzzle all the conclave, and put them to consider, whether they should mourn or triumph.”
Of the “Profane Catechism,” which follows, we have already given a specimen, which we doubt not will be deemed a very sufficient evidence, that it is not from indolence that we forbear to produce any further extracts. In truth, it is a very absurd and clumsy piece of work. With the other parts of the book we have, we confess, been much interested and entertained, and have been proportionably anxious, by the choice and the copiousness of our quotations, to transfuse into our own pages as much as possible of that which has fixed our attention, and excited our feelings in the original.
We close the present article with the following particulars of the life of Cheynell: whether we have in the preceding remarks taken a correct view of his character or not, we of course cannot presume to determine; but the passage we are about to quote, does, we confess, affect us with a melancholy, as for the misfortunes of a friend.
Cheynell's death happened in 1665, at an obscure village called Preston, in Sussex, where he had purchased an estate, to which he retired upon his being turned out of the living of Petworth. The warmth of his zeal, increased by the turbulence of the times in which he lived, and by the opposition to which the unpopular nature of some of his employments exposed him, was at last heightened to distraction, and he was for some years disordered in his understanding."
Art. II.—The Memoirs of Philip de Comines : containing the
History of Lewis XI. and Charles VIII. of France, and of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, to which Prince he was Secretary: as also the History of Edward IV. and Henry VII. of England; including that of Europe for almost half the Fifteenth Century: with a Supplement, as also several original Treaties, Notes and Observations. And lastly, the Secret His. tory of Lewis XI. out of a book called. The Scandalous Chronicle, and the Life of the Author prefired to the whole, with Notes upon it, by the famous Sleidan. Faithfully translated from the Édition of Monsieur Godefroy, Historiographer Royal of France. To which are added, Remarks on all the Occurrence relating to England. By Mr. Uvedale. London, 1712.
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, Edward IV. of England, Francis of Bretagne, “ the best humoured Prince in the world,” are personages who possess sufficient interest, to render us willing to endure for a short time some acquaintance with * Lewis XI., a king notorious for a bad disposition, an unquiet reign, oppressive to his subjects, and disgraceful to himself, and a penitence awakened rather by personal sufferings, at the close of his career, than the genuine repentance of religious sincerity, and honest remorse.
However difficult it might be to speak of such a man and his measures, with that impartial and calm examination, which should ever influence the historian, we cannot forbear to give our full assent to the character given to Philip de Comines in the preface, after which we shall proceed to the examination of his work methodically.
“He commends no man the more for being of his own fainily or country; nor the Kings themselves in whose court he had been raised, unless the goodness of their actions could justify his relations, and where they were faulty, he never fails to show it. "In a word, he is all over like himself, honest, entire, and faithful as he ought to be ; what he says is graceful, and his relations are intermixed with many wise
Lewis the Eleventh was the son of Charles the Fortunate, so named from having expelled the English from his dominions, in which he was greatly assisted by the celebrated Joan of Arc. The rebel. lious conduct of his son embittered all his latter days, and having discovered that, in conjunction with some malecontents, Lewis had laid a plot to poison him, he abstained from all food six days, and when prevailed upon to take it, expired in consequence.