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sible in Europe; and the more, that a political element was involved in the contest. Free thought naturally led to free institutions, and the leading European governments were, by the breaking up of feudalism, centralized and made more despotic than ever. Thus its tendency to political revolution organized strong governments against it, or prevented its development by the check of governmental supremacy.

3. While this contest was working itself out in the firm establishment of Protestantism under state patronage in northern Europe, and its entire extinction in the stronger and more conservative southern monarchies, the discovery and subjugation of Mexico and Peru, with their wealth of precious metals and tropical productions, together with the trade with the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, passage to which was discovered before the daring venture of Columbus, had greatly enriched Europe. A large part of this wealth passed immediately, or in process of time, into the hands of the people as the result of

personal adventure or of the activity of commerce, trade and industry. The maritime regions of northern Germany, Holland and England gathered much of this golden fruit; the maritime republics of Italy fell into decay; and Spain spent its vast treasures in war. It was led to this suicidal policy by various royal marriages which united the German Empire, Spain and the Netherlands under one scepter. This vast ascendancy, united with great wealth, excited the alarm of other nations, and contributed to strengthen the Reformation. The Protestant princes of Germany and the king of France united to reduce this dangerous pre-eminence in order to uphold the existing nationalities of Europe, or the Balance of Power, as it was called. Thus the emperor, Charles V., was led to pour out the treasures of Mexico and Peru to sustain his political aspirations, and his wars turned the wealth of the Indies into the channels of commerce and industry.

His successor, Philip II., still uniting Spain and the Netherlands, undertook to crush the reformed faith in the latter states,

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and failed in a war of nearly half a century. This vast expense made Spain, the richest country of Europe, the poorest, still to the profit of commerce and the greater strength of Protestant lands. The United Netherlands became free Protestant states and remarkably prosperous.

4. The English people advanced in laying the foundations of a free constitution from the time of the Magna Charta in 1215. They became strongly Protestant, and finally their commons engaged in a contest with the king, Charles I., for the maintenance of popular rights. He resisted to the last extremity, and the commons precipitated a revolution that dethroned and beheaded him, and established a republic. This was premature and expired with the great leader, Cromwell, who had successfully headed it. Royal power was restored, but a few years later was rearranged and so modified as to be suited to the independent but moderate tendencies of the people. A certain part of the English people, however, aspired to more complete liberty than a monarchy could afford them, and passed over the sea to secure freedom of conscience and political enfranchisement in the New World.

With the moderate and steady maintenance of their rights, characteristic of Englishmen, they were governed under charters from the English sovereigns who, for the sake of extending their dominions, allowed them much freedom. European governments could not conform to the demands of progress by loosening the bands of arbitrary rule, and the new colonies became the refuge of such as aspired to more liberal institutions, as well as of adventurers in search of gain. Thus the English colonies became the escape valve of European politics and society, the Appendix of the Reformation, and the Hope of Liberty.

SECTION XVII.

CONCLUSION.

1. We see here again the operation of the constant law that impelled men, or moved the “Star of Empire," west

ward. The form of the continents, the character of the surface and the climate, provided a natural and desirable opening only in that direction. The overplus of population, the dis. content of some part of the people with existing government, the restlessness of adventurers, or the requirements of trade and commerce produced a migration. The colony, instructed by the experience of the parent state, was free to improve on: its institutions. Colonies have almost always prospered morethan the mother country. Transplanting seemed to improve both the stock and the institutions. Greece was colonized from Asia, as was Rome; Miletus, Syracuse, and other Greek colonies excelled the mother cities in wealth, and though the free structure of Grecian government allowed a natural devel.. opment at home and made Athens the metropolis, yet its : marvelous genius was nourished and stimulated by the colonies. Carthage was greater and stronger than Tyre, and contended with Rome for the control of the world; the most western nations of Europe were colonized from Rome and Germany, and have taken the lead in later progress, while America has always displayed the lusty, fertile vigor of a

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Thus the conformation of the surface of the earth, and the peculiarly fruitful character of a transplanted civilization, have always furnished an escape from the embarrassing fixity of an old state, in the same western direction, and the old and the new unite to establish frequent stages of progress. In this way a continuous growth has been secured that impresses on advancing culture the same unity, from first to last, that we see in the growth and mental development of. the individual man.

2. We have seen the aggregation and primary disciplineof mankind in the simple but extensive despotisms of western Asia, varied in Palestine by a theocratic system which has produced the world's great religion, and in Egypt by the predominance of a learned priestly caste. We saw an improvement made in Greece to meet the demands of intellectual

development. Their intelligence, however, was a spontaneous outburst, of necessity immature. Two thousand years of training, and the addition of many new elements were required before mind could rule the world; but Greece, by the attractiveness of her art and culture, set men at work on the great problem of politics and life.

Rome followed to organize government and consolidate the civilizations, to ripen their fruit and transmit the seed to a more favorable time, and to new and better races.

A complete civilization was impossible without well digested science, which had its remote roots in Greece; and law, which was gradually produced by the grand Roman republic; and a clear understanding of the profound yet simple precepts of Jesiis Christ.

3. Western Europe received all the wisdom and experience of the ancient world, and labored well at the grand problem though she did not completely solve it. She, however, made an immense advance toward it, and her children, rich in her experience, instructed at once by her success and her mistakes, and aided always by her wisdom, found (let us hope) in America the goal of their noblest aspirations. This we find the spirit of progress traversing the whole course of human history, constantly advancing through all the confusion of rising and falling states, of battle, siege and slaughter, of victory and defeat; through the varying tortunes and ultimate extinction of monarchy, republic and empire; through barbaric irruption and desolation, feudal isolation, spiritual supremacy, the heroic rush and conflict of the Cross and the Crescent; amid the busy hum of industry, through the marts of trade and behind the gliding keels of commerce; through the bloody conflicts of commons, nobles, kings and kaisers to New and Free America. There the Englishman, the German, the Frenchman, the Italian, the Scandinavian, the Asiatic and the African all meet as equals. There they are free to speak, to think, and to act. They bring their common contributions of character, energy and activity to the support and enlarge

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ment of a common country, and the spread of its influence and enlightenment through all the lands of their origin. As America is the common ground on which all the currents and ideas of all the civilizations meet, so also it is the point from which return currents, hastened by lightning and by steam, seek again every quarter of the earth with kindly greetings, to renew the relations broken in the original separation of the races, and to cement, by exchanges mutually profitable, a new and better unity of mankind. As the heart in the human body receives the current of blood from all parts of the system, and, having revitalized it, returns it with fresh elements of strength, so America adopts the children of all lands only to return a manhood ennobled by a sense of its own dignity through the practice of a system of self-government which improves the condition and promotes the interest of each while it produces harm to none.

4. America, then, will colonize Ideas, extensively, when her institutions are thoroughly matured. The process, indeed, commenced with her birth, and her Spirit sails with her ships in every sea and visits all lands. All the past has contributed to the excellence of her foundation, and modern Europe has supplied her with the most desirable building material both of ideas and of men.

Without Asia, Greece and Rome, there would have been a very imperfect modern Europe; and without modern Europe, America must have begun at the beginning, with all the lessons, discoveries and discipline of thousands of years to learn. Happily, we seem authorized to believe that, as she concludes the possible great migrations of humanity, she has so well learned the lessons of experience as to have given due flexibility and capacity of improvement to all her institutions, and, when necessary can reconstruct herself within herself. If this be true, she will reach the goal of all progress by furnishing to each individual among her citizens such aid as a state can give to make the most of himself, to reach the fullest expression of his value.

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