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General discouragement in the South — Capture of Seaboard cities — Re

inaugeration of the President — Fall of Petersburg and retreat of Lee –
Close of the War – Assassination of Lincoln.


HISTORY FROM 1865 TO 1879....


Opposed reconstruction policy of Congress and President Johnson – Fi.

nancial condition Patrons of Husbandry - Election and re-election of

Gen. Grant — The centennial year.










Legal form of Will Statement of Testator – Disposition of Proporty-

Appointment of Executors – Statement of Witnesses – Circumstances
of Signature -Necessity of two Witnesses — Articles of Copartnership
- Statement of Agreement — Conditions Mutually agreed to - Signature
- Agreement to continue Copartnership — Agreement to dissolve Co.
partnership - Power of Attorney – How signed and acknowledged -
Form of Submission to Arbitration – Form of Award of Arbitrators -
General Form of Agreement --Agreement for sale of personal property.-
Agreement for sale of Real Estate - How executed and acknowledged--
Form of Lease — Form of Warranty Deed — Form of acknowledgement
of execution of Deed — Witnesses to signature — Mortgage Deed – Ne.
gotiable Note - Non negotiable Note — Note transferable by delivery~,
Due bill — Receipt — What statements required in Receipt.






1. The early traditions of every nation that has undertaken to relate the story of its origin, have given us a confused account of supernatural persons and events which the judgment of more enlightened times has almost uniformly considered fabulous and impossible. It has always been an interesting inquiry how much of fact was veiled under this mythical dress, and a great variety of ingenious and contradictory explanations have been produced by the learned in all ages. In most cases, as in Greece, the national religion has been based on these legends which forin its authority and explanation, and they passed with the people of all early times as facts which it was impious to question. So the wise and good Socrates was supposed to have denied the existence of the national gods, and was condemned to death. This sacred guard placed over early traditions, increased at once the interest and the difficulty involved in their examination.

2. During the present century the improved methods, larger range and more exact style of inquiry, and the assistance and hints which one branch of study has given to others,

have produced the most surprising and satisfactory results. These inquiries are not yet complete ; they seem, on the contrary, to have only commenced, and promise, ultimately, to satisfy all the useful purposes and legitimate curiosity of mankind; still, their conclusions, so far as they go, are unimpeachable. They prove themselves.

The study of Ethnology, which gives an account of the races of mankind; a critical comparison of all languages, ancient and modern; the patient study and ingenious deciphering of architecture and inscriptions found in ancient ruins, and various relics of human activity imbedded in the soil of different countries, have thrown down the barriers which the glowing imaginations of the poets and the want of authentic documents in early times had raised, and have given us a clue to many of the secrets of history, and a safe guide through some of the dark passages of man's primitive life.

To show how this is done would require a treatise on Ethnology, another on Comparative Philology, a third on Antiquarian Research, and a fourth on the Geological Antiquities of Man. Each of these brings a large and valuable contribution to early history. We give only a brief summary of their conclusions.

3. The human race appears to have had its birth on the high table lands of central Asia, south and east of the Caspian Sea. The structure and growth of language, and the remains of early art, indicate an extremely infantile mental condition and successive emigrations from the primitive home of the

Families and tribes which had remained together long enough to build up a common language and strong general features of character and habit, at length separated and formed a number of families of allied races.

4. The first emigrations were made by the Turanian nations, which scattered very widely. Turanian means “outside,” or “barbarian," and was given by the later and better known races who found them, commonly in a very wild, undeveloped state, wherever they themselves wandered in


after times. There are reasons for believing that the first Turanian migration was to China; that they were never afterward much interfered with, and that they early reached a high stage of civilization. It has certainly many very crude and primitive features. Having worked out all the progressive impulses dwelling in the primitive stock of their family almost before other races were heard of, and being undisturbed, their institutions stiffened and crystalized and made few improvements for thousands of years. Chinese history presents a curious problem not yet fully investigated.

Another stream of Turanian emigration is believed to have settled the more north-easterly portions of Asia. Some time after the tide set down through Farther India, and to the islands of Malaysia. In still later periods Hindoostan was peopled by Turanian races; the ancestors of the Mongols and Turks were spread over the vast plains of northern and central Asia; and somewhat later still an irruption into Europe furnished its primeval people. The Finns and Lapps in the north, and the Basques of Spain, are the living representatives of the ancient Turanian stock, while the Magyars, or Hungarians, are a modern branch of the same race, which made an irruption into Europe from Asia in the ninth century of the Christian era. The first appearance of this race in written history was in the establishment of a powerful empire at Babylon, which must have been cotemporary with the earliest Egyptian monarchy, and seems, from the inscriptions on the most ancient ruins, to have been conquered by, and mingled with, an Egyptian or IIamite family. It came to an end before the Assyrian Empire appeared, but seems to have reached a very considerable degree of development.

5. The other two great families of related languages, and therefore of common stock or race, are the Semitic and the Aryan. But previous to the appearance of either of these on this buried stage of history is a family, apparently related, distantly, to the Semites, but who might have separated from the common stock of both before them, called Hamites, who

founded the very ancient and mysterious Egyptian monarchy. A section of this race conquered the Turanians of Babylor, and established the largest dominion then known to men The Chedor-Laomer of Abraham's day was one of its mightiest sovereigns, and ruled over a thickly-settled region a thousand miles in length by five hundred in breadth. Faint traces of it are found in profane history, and the Bible narrative is sustained and largely amplified by inscriptions on ancient ruins. A second Hamite empire in Babylon is believed to have followed this, continuing four hundred years, carrying agriculture and the peaceful arts to a high state of development.

6. Egypt was peopled by the Hamitic race, who founded two kingdoms, afterwards united. Here, social, political, and industrial institutions developed very early in great strength. Their language, the pictorial representation of their social, political, and religious affairs, and the grand and gloomy majesty of their works of art, imply a long period of growth before they reached the maturity in which we find them when written history commences. Their institutions, even in the earliest historic times, showed signs of the decrepitude and decay of age. The vastness and the grim maturity of their monuments and language seem to lend much support to their claim of an immense antiquity. The future study of their remains of art and literature will settle some important prob lems in the chronology of the human race. The children of Ham were clearly the first to lead off

' in the march of civiliza tion.

The Semitic family, deriving its name froin Shem, or Sem one of the sons of Noah, is not as large nor as widely spread ar the Turanian and Aryan, but has exerted an even greater influence on human destiny. It never strayed much from Asia, except to people small portions of Africa. They early appear in Western Asia as the successors of the second Hamitic empire in Babylon and Assyria. Settled in Phenicia, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean sea, they became the first

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