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to denote the causes of their being borne, such as arms of dominion, of pretension, of concession, of community, of patronage, of family, of alliance, of succession, and of assumption. Those of dominion and sovereignty are those which emperors, kings, and sovereign states constantly bear, being, as it were, annexed to the territories, kingdoms, and provinces they possess. Thus there are the arms of England, of France, of the United States, &c. Arms of pretension are those of kingdoms, provinces, or territories, to which a prince or lord has some claim, and which he adds to his own, although such kingdoms or territories are possessed by another prince or lord. Arms of concession, or augmentation of honor, are entire arms, as the fortress of Gibraltar on the escutcheon of Lord Heathfield. Arms of community belong to 'bishoprics, cities, companies, &c. Arms of patronage, to governors of provinces, lords of manors, &c. Arms of family are the property of individuals; and it is criminal in any persons not of the family to assume them. Arms of alliance show the union of families and individuals. Arms of succession are taken up, by those who inherit certain estates, manors, &c., either by will, entail, or donation, and which they impale or quarter with their own. This multiplies the titles of some families from necessity, and not from ostentation. Arms of assumption, or assumptive arms, are taken up by the caprice or fancy of persons who assume them without a legal title. They are also such as a man of his proper right may assume, with the approbation of his sovereign and of the king of arms.






The parts of arms are the escutcheon, the tinctures, charges, and ornaments. Heralds distinguish nine different points in escutcheons, in order to determine exactly the positions of the bearing they are charged with, as in the figure.

A, dexter chief ; B, precise middle chief ; C, sinister chief; D, honor point; E, fess point; F, nombril point; G, dexter base; H, precise middle base ; I, sinister base. The tinctures mean the variable hue common both to the shields and their bearings; and there are seven tinctures - yellow or gold, expressed by dots ; white or argent; red, by perpendicular lines; blue or azure, by horizontal lines; purple, by diagonal lines from right to left; green, by the same from left to right; black by horizontal and perpendicular lines crossing; and orange and blood colors are ex• pressed by diagonal lines crossing each other. The charges are ihe emblems occupying the field of the escutcheon, or any part of it. All charges are distinguished by the name of honorable ordinaries, sub-ordinaries, and common charges. Honorable ordinaries, the principal charges in heraldry, are made of lines only, which, according to their disposition and form, receive different names,


Sub-ordinaries are ancient heraldic figures frequently used in coats of arms, and which are distinguished by terms appropriated to each of them. Common charges are composed of natural, artificial, and even imaginary things, such as stars, animals, trees, ships, &c. The ornaments that accompany or surround escutcheons were introduced to denote the birth, dignity, or office of the person to whom the arms appertain. They are used both by clergy and laity. Those most in use are of ten sorts; namely, crowns, coronets, mitres, helmets, mantlings, chapeaux, wreaths, crests, scrolls, and supporters. The crest is the highest part of the ornaments of a coat of arms. It is called crest from the Latin word crista, which signifies a comb or tuft, such as many birds have upon their heads, as the peacock, &c. Crests were anciently marks of great honor, because they were worn only by heroes of great valor and high rank, that they might be the better distinguished in an engagement, and ihereby rally their men if dispersed. They are at present considered as mere ornaments. The scroll is an ornament usually placed below the shield and supporters, containing a motto or short sentence, alluding to the bearing or to the bearer's name.

Explanation of the Plate on the following page, taken from Brande's Dictionary of

Science, Literature, and Art.

I. LINES. 1. Horizontal or straight. _2. Angled. 3. Bevelled. 4. Escartele. 5. Nowy or_Franche. 6. Arched or enarched. 7. Double arched. 8. Wavy or undee. 9. Invected. 10. Engrailed. 11. Battled-embattled, or crenellee. 12. Battled-embattled. 13. Nebuly. 14. Potent. 15. Indented. 16. Dancettee. 17. Dove-tailed. 18. Urdee. 19. Rayonnee, or radiant.

II. Points OF THE ESCUTCHEON, COLORS, AND FURS. 20. Escutcheon, points of. 21. Or. 22. Argent. 23. Gules. 24. Azure. 25. Sable. 26. Vert. 27. Purpure. 28. Tenne. 29. Sanguine. 30. Ermine. 31. Ermines. 32. Erminois. 33. Peau. 34. "Vair. 35. Varry cuppy.

III. DIFFERENCES, OR FILIATIONS. 36. (First son) Label of three points. 37. (Second) Crescent. 38. (Third) Mullet. 39. (Fourth) Martlet. 40. (Fifth) Annulet. 41. (Sixth) Fleur-de-lis.

IV. ORDINARIES, &c. 42. Chief. 43. Pale (between two annulets.) 44. Pallet. 45. Party per pale. 46. Border. 47. Bars. 48. Fess. 49. Bend. 50. Bend sinister. 51. Border. 52. Chevron. 53. Cross. 54. Cross of St. John of Jerusalem, or Malla. 55. Cross patonce. 56. Cross moline. 57. Cross of St. Andrew. 58. Crosses humettee. 59. Cross moline in sallier. 60. Cross bottonee or trefoil. 61. Cross crosslet, fitchee. 62. Cross flory. 63. Cross mascle. 61. Cross fitchee. 65. Lozenge, fleury.

V. MISCELLANEOUS BEARINGS. 66. Lion, statant guardant. 67. Passant. 68. Passant guardant. 69. Rampant. 70. Rampant guardant. 71. Rampant reguardant. 72. Sejant. 73. Couchant. 74. Siag at gaze. 75. Stag's head caboshed. 76. Tiger, heraldic. 77. Dragon. 78. Griffin. 79. Dragon's head erased. 80. Wivern. 81. Eagle displayed, with two heads. 52. Boar's head erased. 83. Water budgets. 84. Snake, bowed debruised. 85. Quatrefoil. 86. Trefoils. 87. Fleur-de-lis. 88. Clarion, or rest. 89. Mullets.

VI. CROWNS, CORONETS, &c. 90. Crown of England. 91. Coronet of the Prince of Wales. 92. Coronet of a duke. 93. Marquis. 94. Earl. 95. Viscount. 96. Baron. 97. Mitre of a bishop. 98. Eastern, or antique coronet. 99. Celestial crown. 100. Crown of Edward I. 101.' Mortier, or cap of state. 102. Chapeau, or cap of maintenance. 103. Crown of France. 104. Cardinal's hat. 105. Crown triple, or tiara of the pope.

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[The following account of the Ratification of the Constitution of the United States by the Convention of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts convened at Boston on the 9th day of January, 1793, and conunued until the 7th of February, was printed in the Massachusetts Gazelle of Feb. Sth, 1755, published by John Wincoll Allen ot" Boston. It is here inserted as a historical document of those times that tried men's souls, which will, we thinki, be read with deep interest by those of the present generation. In this way, loo, it will be preserved, as it should be, for posterity. It is printed as we tind it in the Gazeite, with only the addition of the names of the towns, in which the individuals of the Convention resided. Of the Convention, John Hancock was President, William Cushing, Vice-President, and George Richards Minoi, Secretary.]

With the highest satisfaction we announce to the publick, that the Convention of this commonwealth, on Wednesday last, at five o'clock, P. M. ASSENTED TO the CONSTITUTION, proposed by the late federal Convention. On this pleasing event, WE DO HEARTILY congratulate the publick, and do express our sincere wishes, that the general joy which it has diffused through all ranks of citizens, may be an auspicious omen of the superiour advantages which will undoubtedly result from the establishment of such a federal government as this constitution provides.

Immediately on the news of this joyful decision being announced, the bells in every publick building in this metropolis began to ring, and continued to sound the glad tydings for two hours. At sun set the Convention adjourned: after which, a multitude of people, from all quarters, moved into State-street, where they manifested ihe joy they felt from this event, by incessant tokens of approbation, and loud huzzas. The bells of the North church continued to chime harmonious peals of gratulations the whole night, and part of the next day. Illuminations were made and other insignia of joy exhibited.

The yeas and nays, on the question of adoption, being taken, agreeably to the orders of the day, were as follows, viz.


His Excellency JOHN HANCOCK, Esq. President, Hon. James Bowdoin, hon. Sam. Adams, hon. William Phillips, hon. Caleb Davis, Charles Jarvis, esq. John C. Jones, esq. John Winthrop, esq. Thomas Dawes, jun. esq. rev. Samuel Stillman, Thomas Russell, esq. Christopher Gore, esq. Boston, hon. William Heath, hon. Increase Sumner, Roxbury, James Bowdoin, Ebenezer Wales, esq. Dorchester, rev. Nathaniel Robbins, Milton, hon. Richard Cranch, rev. Anthony Wibird, Braintree, hon. Cotton Tufts, Weymouth, hon. Benjamin Lincoln, rev. David Shute, Hingham, rev.Joseph Jackson, Brookline, rev. Thomas Thacher, Fisher Ames, esq. Dedham, col. William M’Intosh, Needham, capt. John Baxter, jun. Medfield, hon. Elijah Dunbar, esq. Stoughton, mr. Thomas Mann, Wrentham, mr. George Payson, Walpole, hon. J. Fisher, Franklin, mr. Thomas Jones, Hull, rev. Phillips Payson, Chelsea, mr. Ebenezer Warren, Foxborough, Richard Manning, esq. Edward Pulling, esq. mr. William Gray, jun. mr. Francis Cabot, Salem, hon. Michael Farley, J. Choate, esq. Daniel Noyes, esq. col. Jonathan Cogswell, Ipswich, hon. Tristram Dalton, Enoch Sawyer, esq. E. March, esq. Newbury, hon. Rufus King, esq. hon. Benjamin Greenleaf, esq. Theophilus Parsons, esq. hon. Jonathan Titcomb, Newburyport, hon. G. Cabot, mr. Joseph Wood, capt. Israel Thorndike, Beverly, Isaac Mansfield, esq. Jonathan Glover, esq. hon. Azor Orne, John Glover, esq. Marblehead, Daniel Rogers, esq. John Low, esq. capt. W. Pearson, Gloucester, John Carnes, esq. capt. John Burnham, Lynn ard Lynnfield, mr. William Symmes, jun. Andover, Bailey Bartlett, esq. capt. Nathaniel Marsh, Haverhill, mr. Israel Clark, Topsfield, dr. Samuel Nye, mr. Enoch Jackman, Salisbury, capt. Benjamin Lurvey, mr. Willis Patten, Amesbury, Daniel Thurston, esq. Bradford, mr. Jacob Herrick, Wenham, mr. Simeon Miller, Manchester, hon. Francis Dana, esq. Stephen Dana, esq. Cambridge, hon. Nathaniel Gorham, esq. Charlestown, hon. Joseph Hosmer, Concord, hon. Abraham

Fuller, Newtown, capt. Lawson Buckminster, Framingham, Benjamin Brown, esq. Lexington, Daniel Whitney, esq. Sherburne, capt. Asahel Wheeler, Sudbury, capt. Benjamin Blaney, Malden, capt. Abraham Bigelow, Weston, maj. gen. John Brooks, Medford, dr. Charles Whitman, Stow, Leonard Williams, esq. Waltham, hon. J. B. Varnum, Dracut, hon. J. Pitts, Dunstable, hon. E. Brooks, Lincoln, W. Pynchon, esq. Springfield, hon. C. Strong, mr. Benjamin Sheldon, Northampton and Easthampton, capt. Lemuel Pomeroy, Southampton, brig. gen. Elisha Porter, Hadley, hon. Noah "Goodman, South Hadley, hon. J. Hastings, Hatfield, John Ingersol, esq. Westfield, mr. Ebenezer James, Northfield,

Abner Morgan, esq. Brimfield, capt. David Shepard, Chester, mr. Jesse Reed, Charlemont, Nahum Eager, esq. Worthington, col. Benjamin Bonney, Chesterfield, major Thomas J. Douglass, Northwick, mr. Aaron Fisher, Westhampton, 'mr. Edmund Lazell, Cummington and Plainfield, capt. Thomas Maxwell, Buckland, mr. Elihu Colton, Longmeadow, Joshua

Thomas, esq. mr. Thomas Davis, mr. John Davis, Plymouth, hon. William Cushing, bon. Nathan Cushing, hon. Charles Turner, Scituate, hon. George Partridge, Duxbury, rev. William Shaw, Marshfield, Daniel Howard, esq. mr. Hezekiah Hooper, capt. Elisha Mitchel, mr. Daniel Howard, jun. Bridgewater, rev. Isaac Backus, Isaac Thompson, esq. Middleboro', capt. John Turner, mr. Josiah Smith, Pembroke, William Sever, jun. esq. Kingston, hon. Joseph Cushing, Hanover, rev. Samuel Niles, Abington, mr. Freeman Waterman, Halifax, col. Israel Fearing, Wareham, Shearjashaub Bourn, esq. Barnstable, David Thacher, esq. capt. Jonathan Howes, Yarmouth, hon. Solomon Freeman, capt. Kimball Clark, Harwich, rev. Levi Whitman, Wellfleet, capt. Joseph Palmer, Falmouth, James Williams, esq. Taunton, hon. Elisha May, capt. Moses Willmarth, Attleboro', col. Sylvester Richmond, hon. William Baylies, Brighton, hon. Thomas Durfee, Israel Washburne, esq. Freetown, hon. Walter Spooner, rev. Samuel West, New Bedford, mr. William Almy, Westport, Nathaniel Barrel, esq. York, rev. Moses Hemmenway, hon. Nathaniel Wells, Wells, Thomas Cutts, esq. Pepperelboro', Jacob Bradbury, esq. Buxton, capt. John Low, Coxhall

, mr. William Mayhew, Edgarlown, mr. Cornelius Dunham, Tisbury, hon. John Sprague, Lancaster, capt. Seth Newton, Southboro', hon. Samuel Baker, Bolton, major David Wilder, Leominster, mr. Matthew Patrick, Western, mr. Josiah Goddard, Athol, capt. Ephraim Wilder, Sterling, John K. Smith, esq; Falmouth, mr. John Fox, capt. Joseph M'Lellan, Portland, David Mitchell, esq. Samuel Merrill, esq. North Yarmouth, William Thompson, esq. Scarboro', capt. John Dunlap, Brunswick, capt. Isaac Snow, Harpswell, mr. Joshua Dyer, Cape Elisabeth, rev. Samuel Perley, Gray, Thomas Rice, esq. mr. David Sylvester, Pownalboro', mr. Nathaniel Wyman, Georgetown, mr. David Gilmore, Woolwich, William M'Cobb, esq. Boothbay, capt. Samuel Grant, Vassalboro', Moses Davis, esq. Edgecomb, David Fales, esq. Thomaston, Dummer Sewall, esq. Bath, John Ashley, jun. esq. Sheffield and Mount Washington, hon. Elijah Dwight, Great Barrington, hon. T. Sedgwick, Stockbridge, hon. Jonathan Smith, Lanesboro, hon. T. J. Skinner, Williamstown, Mr. Elisha Carpenter, Becket, capt. D. Taylor, New Marlboro'. Total Yeas 187.


Capt. Jedediah Southworth, Stoughton, mr. Nathan Comstock, Wrentham, mr. Benjamin Randall, Sharon, mr. M. Richardson, jun. Medway, rev. Noah Alder., Bellingham, hon. Israel Hutchinson, Danvers, capt. Peter Osgood, jun. dr. Thomas Kittredge, Andover, capt. Thomas Mighill, Rowley, hon. A. Wood, Boxford, capt. Ebenezer Carlton, Methuen, dr. Marshall Spring, Watertown, capt. Timothy Winn, Woburn, mr. William Flint, mr. Peter Emerson, Reading, mr. Jonas Morse, major Benjamin Sawin, Marlboro', William Thompson, esq. Billerica, col. Benjamin Ely, capt. John Williston, West Springfield, capt. Phinehas Stebbins, Wilbraham, Mr. Daniel Cooley, Amherst, Mr. Benjamin Eastman, Grunby, Mr. Josiah Allis, Whately, mr. William Bodman, Williamsburg, mr. Samuel Field, Deerfield, mr. Moses Bascom, Greenfield, mr. Robert Wilson, Shelburne, capt. Consider Arms, mr. Malachi Maynard, Conway, capt. Zacheus Crocker, Sunderland, mr. Moses Severance, Montague, capt. Asa Fisk, South Brimfield, mr. Phin. ehas Merrick, Monson, mr. Adam Clark, Pelham, capt. Nathaniel Whitcomb, Greenwich, mr. Timothy Blair, Blanford, mr. Aaron Mirrick, Palmer, mr. John Hamilton, Mr. Clark Cooley, Granville

, mr. John Chamberlain, New Salem, mr. Justus Dwight, Belchertown, mr. Samuel Eddy, Colrain, mr. Isaac Pepper, Ware, capt. John Goldsbury, Warwick and Orange, capt. Agrippa Wells, Bernardston, mr. Ephraim Williams, Ashfield, mr. Asa Powers, Shutesbury, capt. Silas Fowler, Southwick, mr. John Jennings, Ludlow, mr. Jonathan Hubbard, Leverett, mr. Benjamin Thomas, mr. Isaac Soul, Middleboro', mr. Nathaniel Hammond, mr. 'Abraham Holmes, Rochester, capt. Francis Shurtliff, mr. Elisba Bisbee, jun. Plympton, dr. Thomas Smith, mr. 'Thomas Nye, Sandwich, col. Nathaniel Leonard, mr. Aaron Pratt, Taunton, capt. Phanuel Bishop, major Frederick Drown, William Windsor, esq. Rehoboth, mr. Christopher Mason, mr. David Brown, Swansey, hon. Holder Slocum, mr. Melatiah Hathway, Dartmouth, hon. Abraham White,

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