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Upon his return, he entered on his studies with ardor. He was ad. mitted to the Freshman Class in Bowdoin College, in 1836, and gradualed in 1840, with the high esteem of his classmates and instructors, and distinguished for his various attainments.
Dr. Upham was destined to die young. It is gratifying to say, that he was laught early to look from Nature up to Nature's God. While in college he becaine interested in the subject of religion. It was a time of no particular religious excitement, but he appreciated the importance of the subject, and devoted his attention to the Scriptures, with a sincere desire to learn for himself his duty. The result was a heartfelt conviction of his sinfulness by nature, the necessity of an atonement, and of penitence, and faith in Christ. He became an open and ardent professor of religion, was united with the church in his native town, in 1838, and was through life a consistent and consci. entious Christian.
On leaving college, he placed himself under the charge of his brother, the late lamented Dr. Timothy Upham of Waterford, N. Y., and commenced the study of medicine, to which he was led from its immediate connection with his favorite pursuits. He had an enthusiastic opinion of the importance of this study. This was manifest from the wide and commanding position from which he viewed its relation to man, and from the deep and ardent devotedness with which he songht to perfect himself in every branch of knowledge connected with the study
Writing from Paris, in October, 1843, he says, “lately four or five American gentlemen have, by some means or other, found their way 10 me, and have sought, through me, to obtain the advice of our most distinguished men. One poor fellow, wealthy, and in good business, and perfectly unconcerned in regard to life, consulted, through me, Rosten. This medical oracle returned for answer that speedy death was inevitable, that no power under heaven could avert it. Another, whose friends were exceedingly frightened for him, as he was also for himself, having me for interpreter, consulted Louis, who has distin. guished himself for his works on Phthisis. Louis told him to be of good cheer, he was perfectly free from disease, and that he might yet live to a good old age. He went away like a man who, under sentence of death, has been unexpectedly reprieved. And this is medicine! the voice of fate and dooin to some, to others, the bow of joy and promise. In other words, it is the herald which announces to man the decrees of Divinity, which time is commissioned to execute. There is something exceedingly noble in this view of the learned and skilful physician. He has obtained the acme of hunan desires; he has grasped what escaped the hands both of the astrologer and the alchymist; he reads the destiny of men, which the one vainly sought to do, and he pours out the elixir of life, for which the other perished in the pursuit."
Dr. Upham attended the courses of Medical Lectures at Albany and Castleton, and, at the close of the course in Castleton, was appointed Professor of Pathological Anatomy in that Institution. His name appears as Professor in the Catalogue of 1842 In the fall of that year he embarked for Europe, to continue the further prosecntion of his studies at Paris. Soon after his arrival he writes from Paris as follows." Feeling deeply on my arrival in France my own ignorance, and the value of my time, I soleninly resolved not to lose a moment,
but to proceed at once to my business. In accordance with this determination, the first thing which I learned in this great city was the way to the dissecting-room; the next, the way to the hospital. Could you have looked down upon me, on the second day of my arrival, you would have seen me in the “ Ecole de Medecine," knife in hand, bending over the cold and lifeless remains of humanity, or in the “ Hotel Dieu,” walking among the hundreds who were suffering under the different diseases which flesh is heir to. Thus you will perceive that neither time por money was lost in sight-seeing or idleness. After finding myself fully established in Paris, I found the course of my daily life to run thus. Arose at 6 o'clock in the morning, and closed not my eyes till 12 at night. Of this time two hours were spent in the hospital; four or five in the dissecting room; I took two lessons in French a day, and the remaining hours were spent in the study of Medicine." Similar perseverance in habits of study and investigation he continued during his short life.
During his residence in Paris, notwithstanding his strict attention to his professional pursuits, he gratified his love for the Fine Arts by a weekly visit to the Louvre, that he might be enabled the better to ap. preciate the works of the great masters in Painting and Statuary, in his contemplated visit to the South of Europe. He also became acquainted with men distinguished in various branches of science, and with members of his profession visiting Europe from this country, among others with Dr. Sewall of Washington, D. C., who transmitted to him, on his return, the appointment of Corresponding Member of the National Institute. He remained at Paris in close attention to his studies, till the spring of 1844, when he left for a short tour in Germany, Switze erland, and Italy, and returned by England to this country, in September following
His absence abroad seems to have drawn closer the ties of home, and he became desirous of settling in the vicinity of his friends. He had strong attachments to Boston, as a place of permanent abode, in preference to other cities, and determined to take up his residence here, to the exclusion of all other engagements. He, therefore, after some correspondence with his friends at Castleton as to his wishes and views, resigned his situation at that Institution, and commenced the practice of medicine in this city.
Quiet and' unassuming in his manners, he sought no course to excite factitious attention, but devoted himself assiduously to his studies, and such calls as were made upon him for professional assistance. He was gradually obtaining a valuable acquaintance, and his merit was begin. ning to be appreciated, when disease, contracted in the discharge of his duty, suddenly seized him. He was attacked with the malignant ty. phus fever, communicated from a patient whose life he was instrumental in preserving, and died after a brief but violent illness, which no medical skill could relieve, on the 16th of June, 1847, aged 28. So severe was the pressure of disease upon him, he could only manifest his Christian spirit in his quiet resignation under its unmitigating grasp, whose deadly power he well knew. If he had any desire to live, it was not for himself, but for his friends, and mankind. Overcome by his disease, he sank, at last, quietly and peaceably to his final rest, as an infant to his slumbers. His remains were transferred to the quiet retirement of his native village, and repose near the friends he loved 80 well.
Leading the life of a student, and dying at his early age, it can hardly be expected that he should leave lasting memorials of his memory. There are various subjects, however, in medical science, on which he has left valuable memoranda, and also a work on “ New classification in Anatomy,” which he had to a considerable degree perfected, and which is believed would have proved a valuable acquisition to that science. Some of these labors, imperfect as they are, may perhaps yet be preserved to the public.
Dr. Upham was distinguished for his high aims through life, for the enthusiasm that marks the man of genius, for his simplicity of character and confiding affection, for his strength of intellect, sound judgment, and indomitable perseverance. He was six feet in stature, of commanding appearance, with an ingenuous countenance, and a heart strung with the finest chords of sympathy and benevolence. Each year of his life gave assurance of a man constantly advancing in knowledge and ma. turing in excellence, to whom nothing within the range of his efforts seemed unattainable. As we stand by his grave, and mark the poignant grief of friends, and the blasting of such promise, the providence seems inscrutable. It is only as we look upwards, that the eye of faith discerns gleams of hope, shining from another world, hid from us only by the effulgence of the Divine glory, as stars by the sunlight. He is not dead, but transferred to brighter realms, where his pure mind may exult in a deeper love, and soar to sublimer heights. — To those unacquainted with him, our words of eulogy may seeni strange, but it has rarely entered into the heart of a stranger to conceive of such a man. In the depth of our affliction words are powerless, the tongue becomes mute, the currents of the heart pause, speaking, in their hushed agony, our only consolation, the voice alike of inspiration and nature, “Be still, and know that I am God.”
ON THE WEARING OF THE HAIR.
(The following are extracts taken from sermons supposed to have been preached by Rev. Michael Wigglesworth of Malden. They were furnished us by Charles Ewer, Esq., who has in his possession many of the papers of Mr. Wigglesworth. A brief notice of this clergyman, here inserted, may not be uninteresting.
Mr. Wigglesworth was born probably in England, about 1631, and seems to have been a son of Edward Wigglesworth, who died at New Haven, Ct., in 1654, and was called by President Stiles, “ancestor of the Professor." He graduated at Harvard Universily, in 1651, settled in the ministry at Malden, 1654, died, June 10, 1705, about 14 years of age. He was accounted a learned and pious minister; and for his skill in medicine, he was much employed as a Physician in Malden, and in the neighboring towns. He preached the Election Sermon in 1686, and the Artillery Election Sermon in 1696. He was the author of the Poem entitled, “The Day of Doom," printed in both Englands. The last edition of this work was published at Boston, in 1828," from the sixth edition, 1715.” Mr. Wigglesworthi published also “ Meat out of the eater, or a meditation concerning the necessity and end of afflictions unto God's children," of which there was a fifth edition in 1718. He was the father of the first, and grandfather of the second, Professor of Theology in Harvard College.]
The text on which the Sermons are founded, from which the extracts are taken, is Isaiah III. : 16 - 26.
We come now to speak of hair, and pride therein, but before we begin, remember these two general Rules formerly layd down. First that the Scriptures hath not set down every particular form and fashion of apparrel, but hath left us General Rules, from which we are to make application to this and that particular. It sets you down the general Rules to walk by, and those are sufficient to direct our conscience in ye practise of particulars. 2ly The Scriptures do not condemn every particular unlawful or unseemly Fashion in Apparrel, or manner of wearing the hair: but there are Gen. eral rules given by which such are to be Censured. Theref: when we are reproved for such & such fashions, let no man say, I pray tel me what rule in Scripture condemn such apparrel or such length of hair. There be several rules, which you may be guilty of breaking.
In this point of long hair many things may be said. Some lay this down for a position, that it is not lawful to make an ornament of an excrement, and that it is absurd as wel as to affect long nayles, such as Nebuchadnezzar is said to have had. Dan. 4, 33. But this is certain, that a man is not to disfigure himself either in hair or apparrel.
Consider these following 5 Propositions. 1 Prop. That length of hair, which either the special appointmt of God, or nature allows, is not unlawfull. The Nazarite of old might let his hair grow, for by Gods special appointment no Rassur was to come upon his head. Numb. 6. 5. — So also that which nature allows is lawfull. That length of hair which either the ornament, of nature, or the necessity & comfort of nature alloweth, is lawfull. First for the ornament of nature. Hair is given a man to preserve him from the deformity of baldness, therefore so much hair as may preserve his head from baldness is for ye ornament of nature, and therefore lawfull. 2ly That which the comfort of nature calls for wch may be for ye warmth of the head and of those parts which be contiguous to it, so much hair as may attain this end is not unlawfull. No man can justly condemn such a length of hair as is worn for this end and use, and as may attain this end, provided that the circumstances of place, person & season of ye year be also observed herein. For to weare thus much hair, when there is need off it for y® preservation & comfort of life can no more be condemned, then to wear an Artificiall covering,
Now then this followeth. If any shall under pretence of preserving the health and comfort of their heads & lives wear their hair over their necks or bands (or doublet col. lar) it is an unseemly thing, and hath not any foot hold that I know of in Gods word. Hence for young men and such as are of healthfull constitutions, whose heads can bear cold (and especially in warm weather when there is no need of it) for such to wear it at this length is justly offensive to the people of God. And if a man once go beyond those bounds of Gods speciall appointmēt, & what nature alloweth or calls for, I know not where he will stay. If ye affect to go any whit beyond this I know not where ye will stop untill ye grow like the veriest Ruffian in ye world.
Be not offended with persons that are weak or in ye winter time find a need of it, if they wear it so as may be a help to them, as a little below their ears.
. The scpt gives you an express rule for this I Cor. 11 14. 15. It is against the nature of a man. Every length of hair that is a badge of it, when it tends to make man womanlike, or unmanlike, is unlawfull. Nature hath given to man the natural temper hotter than the woman, and therefore short hair is given to the man as a naturall sign of his rule. So that it is a sin against nature to affect or wear womanish hair, it is unseemly & against the light of nature, against naturall decency. And though diverse of ye Heathen did wear long hair, yet they did it rather out of a neglect of themselves, then for ornament; yea many of them accounted it their greatest ornament to wear short hair. Seneca in one of his Epistles stands and wonders why men should nourish their hair, for if they wear it for ornament saith hee, there are many horses have greater mains, then thou hast an head of hair., And many of them say, that there are few that wear long hair inclining to a womanish length but they are either soft and womanish spirits, or else filthy and full of vice. The womans hair is given her for a covering: Hence wben men shall wear their hair so as may be for a covering, that is so as may be tyed up on the top of their head, or be turned back and tyed behind in their necks, it is a most effeminate thing. I Tim. 2. 9. It argues much wantonness when men shall affect a kind of bravery as now adayes they do by curling or frizeling of their hair, and parting it with a seam in y® middest, it argues much effeminacy. The Lord abhorrs such vanity in women, but for men to do it is a most loathsom thing, and a fashion altogether unbeseeming a christian.
3 Propos :
That length of hair which is an effect or a badge of pride and vanity, though in it self it be nothing, yet it is unlawfull for thee, although it might be lawfull for another man. Suppose it were lawfull to weare longer hair then is usuall, yet if it be a badge of pride in thy heart it is unlawful to thee; and if thy right eye cause thee to offend or
thy right hand, pluck out the one, cut off thee other and cast it from thee. If it nourish pride in thy heart, away with it: else thou makest provision for the Aesh and lusts thereof in keeping it to be a snare unto thee.
obj: oh but it is comfortable and needsul. Ans. I say that unnecessary length of hair which nourisheth pride in you, away with that.
obj: But such a good man wears his hair as long, and why may not I?
Ans. That which is one mans meat may be another mans poison. It may be he wears it so out of a neglect of himself, whereas it would nourish pride in thy heart. Or he may have a need of it or some other reason for it, which thou hast not. 4 Proposition.
That length of Hair which exceeds the ordinary length worn by persons that are most godly and gracious in ye country where you live, & ye Relation wherein you stand, that length is unlawful, you are bound to imitate the generality of the best: un. less this Age of good men be degenerated from former examples without cause. I know examples are not to be any mans rule, but the word is to be my Rule and the word gives me this Rule, what soever things are honest, what soever things are lovely & of good report &c. think of these things Phil 4. 8; 9 what soever you have learned & received, heard and seen in me, do v 9: So that, though no mans example be my rule, yet in ye Application of my conscience to ye Rule I look to ye examples of the best & most grave and sober y' we live amongst. And why should any one affect the fashion of a Ruffian, before the fashion of a godly grave person? or why the examples of degenerate later times be followed rather then the better examples of former times ? what the Apostle speaks of Apparrel I Pet. 3: 3. 4. 5. may be applyd to this of hair. And in the I Cor. 11. 16. If any man seem to be contentious we have no such custom with the churches of God. It hath been a loathsom thing to all ye Godly in former ages to wear long hair. It hath not been their manner amongst civil nations to wear long hair. It was a dishonour in former times for a man that had any love to Religion to wear a lock.
5 Prop. That length of hair which is offensive unto the weak is unlawfull. obj: But they take offense where there is none given. Ans. There may be weakness in taking offense, yet in some cases we ought not to offend the weak, though it be their weakness to be offended. Rom. 14, 15. 20. we must not offend our Brother with our meat. I Cor. 8: last. I will eat no flesh for ever rather then offend my Brother. Q. when ought we to tender our Brothers weakness and to avoyd that which grieves him, & when ought we not to regard it?
Ans. If it be a duty for you to do this or that, then if others be offended at it, it is no matter. Wo to the world becaus of offenses. In this case you must not forbear a duty becaus others wil be offended. Christ himself was an offence to many in this case.
But 2ly If it may be as wel forborn as done, then I am not to be an offence to others in an indifferēt thing. As ye Apostle I: Corinth: 8. ult. I wil rather never eat flesh then offend my Brother (that is some kind of flesh that the Jews scrupled) for in offend. ing my Brother thus I should sin, & offend God. So for your hair; It may be in winter time you may need it longer to keep you warm, but in sumer you need it not, therefore it is then a sin to offend others in wearing it. 3ly If a Broth be offended and he gives his reason, though it be a weak reason, yet I am to abstain from that which may offend him, so as it be indifferent. 4ly when the case is so, that there is no other offended if I forbear such a fashion or such length of hair, & many are offended that I use it ; I ought in this case to forbear it. Or if in some things offence will be taken on both sides by some, a man is at his liberty: but yet be sure to chuse that which shall give least offence. Now I do not think that ye consciences of any wil be offended at your short hair, unless you should shamefully disfigure your selves, wch were a vanity & sin to do.
Thus you have had the Rules that God giveth us about the wearing of hair and apparrel: and for excess in these things the wrath of God is so great, that he brings ye sword upon a land to destroy it, as you see in the text. It is such an uncurable evil, that men and women wil never leave it, til the Lord take it away by force and violence. Consider then, can you wear long hair without offence to some, or without pride and vanity in your own heart. 2ly If you could wear it wth out offence or pride, why wil you do it in this country, where most of ye people of God wear short hair. No man thinks you the better for ye long hair. For us to follow fashions and to wear long hair, it doth not become us, & the humility and meanness of that condition that God sets us in ; especially for scholars and such as should be most exemplary.
3ly Why should we wear it at such a time as this when every one useth it, the very basest sort of persons, every Ruffian, every wild-Irish, every hang-man, every varlet and vagabond shall affect long hair, shall men of place and honour esteem it an honour unto them?
4ly Why wil you come so near to the brink of an evil. He that sathan can per