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Leeds is 200 miles from London. The parliamentary, which is the cheapest train, is a penny a mile :- What would it cost you to go from London to Leeds and back again ?
When you have rested yourselves, and are ready for another excursion, we will see what is to be seen in the south of England, and travel to the Land's End in Cornwall.
Look out on the left soon after you leave London, and you will see Windsor Castle, where the Queen lives; and close to it is Eton School, where many of the nobility and richest families of England send their boys, and where they get knocked about, and have to rough it, in a way which would make many of you cry. And if you should chance to meet any of the Queen's children or grandchildren, you would hear them speak so gently and kindly to each other, as would give you a lesson not to talk so rudely and roughly as you often do.
Next you enter Wiltshire, where is Salisbury Plain. Perhaps you have read a story about a shepherd there. That story was written by a lady of Somersetshire, the next county you will enter. She lived eighty years ago, when no poor people were taught to read or write. She thought this was a pity, and set about teaching them in many Somersetshire villages ; but the people set dogs at her and her sister, and threw stones at them. No wonder! for they had not been taught better, but were just like savages. At last she succeeded, but could only get a barn for a schoolroom, and sacks of hay made the seats. But at last the children were eager to
learn, and played truant less seldom than some of you. This lady lived near Bristol ; her name was Hannah More.
Next you will come to Devonshire-a lovely county, and so warm, that plants, which require a hothouse in other parts of England, grow like weeds. And the grass is so good, that the cows give capital milk, which makes that good stuff called Devonshire cream ; much of which, however nice it is, would make you very sick.
Next you will reach Cornwall, full of mines and miners; and having arrived at the inn at the Land's End, if you want to make any more journeys in England, you must find the way for yourselves.
WALES is a pretty little country, like England's baby brother. It was conquered long ago by a king of England, who promised the people that they should have a prince to govern them who could not speak a word of English. He then told them his own son, a baby, who could not speak any language at all, should be their prince. Since that time the eldest son of the King of England has been called the Prince of Wales.
Wales is very mountainous, and numbers of little sheep graze on the green hills. Welsh mutton is famous.
Some of the Welsh can speak English ; but not all of them. The clergymen have, in some places, to read the service on Sundays both in Welsh and English.
Principal Rivers of England.—Thames, in the south ; Severn, in the west; Trent, in the middle; Ouse, in the north.
Government.—King or Queen, House of Lords, House of Commons. The Lords are men who are called noblemen ; because in most cases either they or their ancestors have done some noble or great act, and have received their titles as a reward.
The Commons are chosen from among the “coinmon” people by votes.
Established form of Religion.—Protestant Episcopal; but all other forms of religion are allowed.
Episcopal means that the clergymen are under bishops.
SCOTLAND lies to the north of England, separated from it by the river Tweed, and a long range of mountains called the Cheviot Hills. Long, long ago, the people who lived in the south of Scotland and the north of England were always quarrelling, and stealing each other's things. The border land, as that part of the country was called, could not have been a pleasant place to live in. But now all that is changed, for England and Scotland are, as you know, governed by the same Queen, and Scotchmen sit in the Houses of Parliament at Westminster. How did this change come about? Not by fighting, for the English did not take Scotland by force.
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It was in this way: more than three hundred years ago, Queen Elizabeth of England died, and left no nearer relation to succeed her than her cousin, who was King of Scotland. So a Scotch king came to reign in England, and since that time Scotch and English have been very good friends.
Scotland is a much more beautiful country than England, and much wilder. There are high mountains, and big lakes, and steep rocks, and beautiful waterfalls. There are great moors or commons, covered with a beautiful plant called heather; and on the moors are numbers of birds, partridges, pheasants, grouse, and others, which gentlemen go and shoot in the autumn. Scotland is much colder than England, and more rainy. The mountainous part, which lies chiefly to the north, is called the Highlands, and the south the Lowlands.
The Highlanders are very fine tall men. Some of them have a curious dress on smart occasions ; it consists of a short petticoat, called a kilt, and a piece of cloth wrapped round the upper part of the body called a plaid. The Scotch are very brave, and make capital soldiers. They are very fond of their country, and kind to each other. They are well educated, and care a great deal about reading. There are many shepherds in Scotland ; these men have wonderfully clever and faithful dogs. They go with their masters everywhere ; 'even to the churches.
The capital city of Scotland is Edinburgh. This is the most beautiful town in the world. Why? On account of its situation. The Castle of Edin
burgh is built on a high rock; so, when in the streets of Edinburgh, you look up at the beautiful castle.
A good many of the streets, however, are dirty, narrow, and close. There are many churches and schools in Edinburgh.
There are big dining-halls, where you can buy a dinner at this rate :-For a plate of cooked meat, one penny; for a bit of bread, one penny; for some potatoes, another penny. Everything costs a penny. This answers to the sellers, because, though some things they sell are worth much more than a penny, others are worth less.
Anuther big city is Glasgow ; this is a great manufacturing place, like Manchester.
The highest mountain in Scotland is Ben Nevis, in the Highlands, which is more than 4,000 feet high. The biggest lake is Loch, or Lake, Lomond, which is twenty-four miles long. The largest river is the Tay. The principal islands belonging to Scotland are the Shetlands, Orkneys, and Hebrides. Very little will grow upon the Shetlands or Orkneys, because the soil is so bad. There are pretty little rough Shetland ponies, which are often sent to England and sold.
The Scotch have a great deal of fish on their coasts, and in their rivers. They catch a great many herrings, which are salted to make them keep, and sold in other countries. Scotch salmon, too, is famous.
Religion.—The religion is Protestant, but the ministers are not under bishops, as in England.