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ifications of electors and of Representatives, regulates the apportionment of members and of direct taxes, and provides for filling vacancies and for the election of the necessary officers. The House has the sole power of impeachment.

Section 3, six clauses, regulates the composition of the Senate, fixes the term of Senators, the classes into which they shall be divided, and their qualifications, declares the Vice-President the President of the body and empowers it to choose other officers, including a President pro tempore. The Senate is made the court for trying impeachment cases, and the judgments that it may render in such cases are defined.

Section 4, two clauses, deals with the times, places, and manner of holding elections of Senators and Representatives, and provides for an annual session of Congress.

Section 5, four clauses, deals with the independent powers of the two Houses; it makes them judges of the elections of their members, and regulates quorums, adjournments, rules, and records of proceeding.

Section 6, two clauses, provides that members of Congress shall receive a compensation from the National treasury, clothes them with special privileges, and declares their incapacity to hold certain offices.

Section 7, three clauses, commits to the Lower House the origination of revenue bills, and declares the procedure by which laws shall be enacted, including the definition of the President's veto.

Section 8, eighteen clauses, is a statement of the general powers of Congress.

Section 9, eight clauses, imposes limitations upon Congressional power : the slave trade, habeas corpus, bills of attainer and expost facto laws, capitation taxes, export duties, the mode of drawing money from the treasury, and titles of nobility are all regulated.

Section 1o, two clauses, imposes certain limitations upon the States. Here we have the formal denial to them of some of the most imposing powers of sovereignty, as the power to enter into treaties with foreign states and with one another, to coin money, to keep troops in time of peace, and several others.

250. Article II., 4 Sections.—This Article has for its subject matter the Executive Department of the Government.

Section 1, seven clauses, vests the power in a President of the United States of America, defines his term of office, as also that of the Vice-President, regulates the elections of the two officers, and declares their qualifications. It also declares in what cases the Vice-President shall succeed to the Presidency, provides for the President a salary, which shall not be increased nor diminished during his term of office, and prescribes his inauguration oath.

Section 2, three clauses, defines the President's duties. He shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States, may require the written opinion of the heads of the executive departments of the Government that may be constituted, and shall possess the power of granting pardons and reprieves save in case of impeachment. He shall, in conjunction with the Senate, make treaties, shall nominate and appoint certain classes of officers, and shall fill all vacancies in such offices that occur in the recess of the Senate.

Section 3 deals with the same subject. The President shall, from time to time, give Congress information of the state of the Union, and shall recommend such measures to their attention as he thinks necessary and expedient; he may convene them on extraordinary occasions, and adjourn them when they cannot agree on the time of adjournment; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers, shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all officers of the United States.

Section 4 declares that the President and Vice-President shall be removed from office on conviction of impeachment.

251. Article III., 3 Sections. ---This Article deals with the Judicial Department.

Section 1 vests such power in one Supreme Court, asa such inferior courts as Congress shall from time to time create. It makes the tenure of the judges life, or good behavior, and forbids Congress to diminish their compensation after they enter upon their office.

Section 2, three clauses, declares the classes of cases to which the judicial power shall extend, defines the jurisdiction, original and appellate, of the Supreme Court, and regulates the trial of all crimes, securing the right of trial" by jury, and defining places of trial.

Section 3, two clauses, defines the crime of treason and the mode of its proof, and intrusts to Congress its punishment, subject to a single regulation in respect to corruption of blood and forfeiture of estate.

252. Article IV., 4 Sections. This Article relates to various subjects.

Section i guarantees the faith and credit of the public acts of any State in all the other States.

Section 2, three clauses, guarantees the rights and privileges of citizens of one State in the other States, and declares that fugitives from justice, and fugitives from service or labor (slaves arıd apprentices), fleeing from one State into another, shall be given up.

Section 3, two clauses, provides for the admission of new States into the Union, and for the management of the National territory and other property.

Section 4 says the United States shall guarantee to every State a republican form of government, and shall protect them against invasion and, on application, against domestic violence.

253. Article V.—This Article deals exclusively with amendments to the Constitution, defining the manner in which they shall be proposed and in which they shall be ratified.

254. Article VI.- This Article declares (1) the inviolability of the debts and engagements of the United States entered into before the Constitution was adopted ; (2) the

supreinacy of the Constitution, laws, and treaties of the United States over all citizens and States; and (3) requires that Senators and Representatives, members of State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers of the United States, and of the States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support the Constitution, but no religious test shall be made a qualification for any National office or trust.

255. Article VII.—The subject of this Article is the ratification of the Constitution.

256. Amendments I.-X.-These Amendments were proposed by Congress September 25, 1789, and, having received the requisite ratifications, were proclaimed to be in force, December 15, 1791. Together they constitute a bill of rights. They are intended to protect the citizen against undue interference by the National authority. Thus, they guarantee freedom of worship, of speech, of the press, the right of petition, the right to bear arms, immunity of the citizen against the army, the right to be secure in person, home, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches by public officers, and other personal and civil rights. Criminal trials are regulated, jury trial in civil cases guaranteed, excessive bail forbidden, and the doctrine of delegated authority, as respects the Constitution, affirmed. 257.

Amendment XI.-This Amendment, proposed March 5, 1794, declared in force January 8, 1798, worked a considerable limitation of the jurisdiction of the National courts. Compare the Amendment with Article III., Sec. 2.

258. Amendment XII.-This Amendment was proposed December 12, 1803, and declared in force September 25, 1804. It materially changes the mode of electing the President and Vice-President after the electoral colleges have been appointed by the States.

259. Amendment XIII., 2 Sections.-This amendment abolished slavery in the United States.

It was proposed January 31, 1865, and declared in force December 18 of the same year.

260. Amendment XIV., 5 Sections.—This amendment, which was proposed June 16, 1866, and which took effect July 28, 1868, relates to the reconstruction of the Union following the Civil War. It defines citizenship, guarantees the privileges and immunities of citizens against State interference, provides a mode of apportioning Representatives in certain cases (which never took effect), declares certain persons who have participated in rebellion against the United States ineligible to Congress, to the electoral colleges, and to any office, State or National, until their disabilities shall have been removed by Congress, affirms the validity of the public debt, prohibits the United States or any State to pay debts contracted in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the Union, and to pay for any slaves lost or emancipated in the course of the same.

261. Amendment xv., 2 Sections.-This amendment had the practical effect to confer the right of suffrage upon all citizens of the United States, so far as previously existing limitations growing out of race, color, or previous condition of servitude were concerned.

262. Objects of Review.-A careful reading of the Constitution, accompanied by such a grouping of provisions as the foregoing, in addition to preparing the student for close study of the instrument itself, will subserve two or three other purposes. It will show how admirably the various provisions that the Federal Convention had elaborated and agreed to, were worded and grouped by the Committee of Revision. Furthermore, it will admirably illustrate the nature of a constitution as opposed to an ordinary law. It will give force to the words of C.-J. Marshall:

"A constitution, to contain an accurate detail of all the subdivisions of which its great powers will admit, and of all the means by which they may be carried into execution, would partake of the prolixity of a legal code, and could scarcely be embraced by the human mind. It would probably never be understood by the public. Its nature, therefore, requires that only its great outlines should be marked,

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