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1on of North America,” “London and Plymouth Companies,” “Colonies planted by Companies," "Colonies Planted by Proprietors," “Voluntary Colonies, Agency of the Home Government,“Classes of Colonists,” “Ideas of the English Colonists,” and the “Rights of Englishmen,” furnish an outline to those who wish merely an outline. The special treatment of the Southern Colonies,–Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia ; the Northern Colonies, embracing the Plymouth Company, Plymouth, the Plymouth Compact, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire; the Middle Colonies, – New York, New Je“ Pennsylvania, and Delaware,-will enlarge the field and meet the van sof those who wish a fuller view of American Colonization. Or take Chapter III., "America Independent.” The paragraphs in larger type will give a limited view, while these in connection with those in smaller type will give a comprehensive view, of the movement for independ


The obvious conclusion is this: If the time allotted to the subject, and the ability of the pupil or class, are sufficient to justify the attempt, all the matter can be presented; but if the time allotted to the subject, or the ability of the class, does not admit of such extended treatment, then the work can be easily limited to suit cir. cumstances. What the author regards as good reasons for teaching the Federal Government before the State Governments, at the stage of progress that this work represents, are presented in Chapter XII. Those teachers wlio do not concur in those reasons, or who have some special end to gain, can reverse the order of Parts II. and III. If Part I. is to be studied at all, no matter how hastily, it should be taken before the other two, or either of them.

A competent teacher of the subject of Government will naturally turn his mind to its pedagogical side. The question will arise, What is the educational value of the study? To this question a few remarks may be directed.

Below the college, at least, tlıe principal end of the study should be practical. The study of government is the pursuit of political knowledge, and such knowledge is valuable, first of all, for practical purposes. The art of politics, or of government, is one of the most important arts. It concerns, and should interest, everybody. Man is a social being; he lives in, and must live in, society. But society cannot exist without government, and this want again is met by man's political nature. Still more, he attains his fullest perfection, in that social condition which we call civil society, or the state ; and this condition involves government of an elaborate and highly organized form. These ideas have been duly set forth in the Introduction. However, the point is not there made, or at least is not insisted

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upon, that the successful operation of a highly organized government intimately depends upon the education and character of the citizens. Aristotle insisted that education must have regard to the constitution, and that it is the great means of uniting the state. “The citizen should be moulded,” he says, to suit the form of government under which he lives. For each government has a peculiar character, which originally formed, and which continues to preserve it. The character of democracy creates democracy, and the character of oligarchy creates oligarchy; and always the better the character the better the government.” He argues further that “.

women aud children must be trained by education with au eye to the state, if the virtues of either of them are supposed to make any difference in the virtues of the state. And they must make a difference; for the children grow up to be citizens, and half the free persons in a state are wonien." Montesquieu also argues that education should be relative to the principles of government. "The laws of education are the first impressions we receive, and, as they prepare us for civil life, each particular family ought to be governed pursuant to the plan of the great family, which comprehends them all.” While these remarks apply with force to governments of every kind, they apply with greatest force to a democracy or republic, where the people themselves do the governing, either directly or indirectly. No people that has been moulded by an exclusively monarchical or aristocratical society, and is familiar only with the correspanding institutions, can carry on a free government. In his Farewell Address Washington insisted that the more potent public opinion is in any country, the greater the need of its being intelligent; and he might have added, and particularly upon political subjects.

Attention may be directed to three points especially. The first is that the American pupil should be taught his rights under the government; the second is that he should be taught his duties as related to those rights ; and the third is that a spirit should be created that will lead him to insist upon the one and to perform the other. Unless the great body of citizens living under a republic shall measurably conform to this standard of activity, that is, insist upon their rights and discharge their duties to the state, the republic cannot loug be maintained. Professor Bryce, in the article that is referred to below, lays deserved emphasis upon this point. He says that teachers should not be deterred by the abstractness of the subject from trying to make the pupils understand the meaning of such terms as the nation, the state, and the law.” “You need not trouble yourself,” he goes on to say, “to find unimpeachable logical definitions of these terms; that is a task which still employs the learned. What is wanted is that he should grasp the idea, first, of the community-a community inhabiting a country united by various ties, organized by mutual protection, mutual help, and the attainment of certain common ends ; next, of the law, as that which regulates and keeps order in this community; next, of public officers, great or small, as those whom the law sets over us and whose business it is to make us obey the law, while they also obey it themselves.” This counsel is directed to the teacher of the school; and it is not going too far to insist that the pupil who leaves the elementary school at the close of its course of study should be well grounded in these ideas. Such teaching will not fail to develop in good measure that high civic spirit which has been so characteristic of the great commonwealths and which is so essential to good government.

But government, or politics, is more than an art; it is a science as well. Strictly speaking, the exclusive pursuit of the study as a science does not look directly to practical ends, but rather to disciplinary and culture ends. Now the aim is the formation and the adorning of the mind. To a degree this advantage will attend the work below the college, if it is properly done, since the guidance value and the disciplinary value of study to a considerable extent overlap. In the college or university this second end will come much inore distinctly into view. It may perhaps be assumed that the student has sufficient political information to answer the direct ends of citizenship; but he should not assume that the study has no further interest, for it is a great instrument of mental improvement. It would be strange indeed if such a book as Aristotle's Politics should have less disciplinary and culture value than a book dealing with birds, insects, or fishes.

A second pedagogical question may arise, viz. : What methods of teaching should be employed? This question is dealt with, as far as it relates to this book, in Chapter XII. For the rest, it will suffice to refer the reader to a few authorities who deal with that subject. Unfortunately, the quantity of pedagogical literature that deals directly with the study of government is small.

Compayré has a chapter entitled “Morals and Civic Instruction,” in his Lectures on Pedagogy. Mr. Herbert Spencer pays some attention to teaching politics in his essay, “What Knowledge is of Most Worth?” which constitutes the first chapter of his well-known work entitled Education. Mr. C. F. Crehore has an article, “The Teaching of Civics in Schools,” in Education, Vol. VII., (1887) p. 264; a second article, “Foundatiou Principles of Government,” p. 546 of the same volume of the same publication; and still a third, “Jenkins's Bend: A Primary Study in Government,” p. 547. Mr. J. E. Vose is the author of two articles entitled, “Methods of Instruction in Civics,” found pp. 531 and 617 of the sam volume of Education, Mr.

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J. W. McDonald has a paper, “ Teaching Civics,” in The Academy', Vol. V., (1890) p. 373. The Right Honorable James Bryce's article, the “Teaching of Civic Duty,” found in The Contemporary Review, July, 1893, p. 14, should not be overlooked. Dr. W. T. Harris also has some valuable remarks in the “Report on Correlation of Studies," which forms the second part of the “Report of the Committee of Fifteen." See The Educational Review, March, 1895; also numerous republications of the same report. The author also refers to the chap

• Teaching Civics,” in his work entitled How to Study and Teach History.

In the course of the work, occasional points of likeness and unlikeness of the American Government to the English Government have been mentioned. Comparative study of political institutions can be extended by the teacher of the present subject in every

directiou, limited only by his own knowledge and the ability and time of his class. To facilitate such study, a few references are here given.

Borgeaud. Adoption and Amendment of Constitutions in Europe and America.

Freeman, Dr. E. A. Comparative Politics.

Goodnow, Frank J. Comparative Administrative Law. An Analysis of the Administrative Systems, National and Local, of the United States, England, France, and Germany.

Larned, J. N. History for Ready Reference, from the best Historians, Biographers, and Specialists. This work, which cousists of five volumes, contains the following documents Constitution of the Argentine Republic, Constitution of Brazil, Constitution of Canada, Constitution of England, Constitution of France, Constitution of Germany, Constitution of Japan, Constitution of Lycurgus, Constitution of Mexico, Constitution of Norway, Constitution of Prussia, Constitution of Sweden, Constitution of the Swiss Confederation, Constitution of Venezuela. Reference may also be made to the references and notes relating to still other constitutions,

Keltie, J. Scott. The Statesman's Year Book. Statistical and Historical Annual of the World.

Lalor, J. J. Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and United States History.

All the principal Cyclopedias contain valuable articles on political subjects. It will not be amiss to refer to some special authorities relating to four or five leading governments.

CANADA. Munro: The Constitution of Canada; Bourinct: A Manual of the Constitutional History of Canada from the Earliest period to the year 1888, including the British North American Act of 1867, etc.

ENGLAND. Fonblanque : How we are Governed, or the Crown, the Senate, and the Bench; Bagehot: The English Constitution, New and Revised Edition ; Dicey: Lectures Introductory to the Study of the Law of the Constitution ; Anson : The Law and Custom of the Constitution, Part I., Parliament, Part II., The Crown ; Craik : The English Citizen. A series of short books on his rights and responsibilities. 12 Volumes. .

FRANCE. Lebon and Pelet : France as it is. Especially written for English readers, and translated from the French ; Constitution and Organic Laws of France from 1875-1889. Translated, with an historical introduction, by C. F. A. Currier. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. III. Supplement. March, 1893

GERMANY. James : The Federal Constitution of Germany, with an Historical Introduction ; Dawson: Germany and the Germans; Turner : A Sketch of the German Empire from Early Times to the Dissolution of the Empire; Bryce : The Holy Roman Empire.

SWITZERLAND. Vincent: State and Federal Government in Switzerland ; Adams and Cunningham : The Swiss Confederation ; Lowell : “The Referendum in Switzerland and America (The Atlantic Monthly, April, 1894).

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