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are of different forms. In Ohio it is : “Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio;" in Michigan: "The people of the State of Michigan enact ;” in New York : "The people of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact," etc.

683. Enacting Laws. — The rules regulating this subject are established by the constitution. Sometimes a majority of a quorum suffices to carry a measure, but commonly a majority of all the members elected to each house is necessary. In four States, Rhode Island, Delaware, North Carolina, and Ohio, the action of the Legislature alone is sufficient for the enactment of laws, as they have never given their Governors the veto power. Nor did the following States give their executives this power until the dates mentioned : Connecticut, 1818; Maryland and South Carolina, 1867; Tennessee and Virginia, 1870; West Virginia, 1872.

Forty States require all bills, and twenty-three States joint resolutions also, to be sent to the Governor for his approval before they become laws. The rules relating to the subject are very minute and cannot be summarized. New York in the years 1777-1821 intrusted the veto to the Governor, Chancellor, and Judges of the Supreme Court. Illinois, 1818-1848, gave the same power to the Governor and Supreme Judges. In Vermont, previous to 1838, the Governor and Council could suspend a law until the following session of the Legislature. The Governor of New York can veto some portions of a bill and approve other portions.

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CHAPTER LII.

THE STATE EXECUTIVES.

684. Vesting the Executive Power.-Most of the States vest the supreme executive power in the Governor, but some vest it in the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and the heads of certain enumerated departments. But this distinction is more in name than in fact, as we shall soon see.

685. Elections, Terms, and Salaries. These are regulated in the constitutions and laws, details being commonly left to the laws. The States present a considerable variety of provisions relating to these subjects. Most of them hold their elections on the day fixed by Congress for the election of National Representatives, Tuesday after the first Monday of November. In most States a plurality of the votes cast suffices for an election, but a few require a majority. In the last case, when the people fail to elect, the Legislature chooses one of the candidates voted for. In all the States holding gubernatorial elections in November, the term begins on or near the first Monday of January following:

In Massachusetts and Rhode Island the term is one year; in New Jersey and New York, three years ; in California, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming, four years; in the other States, two years. The gubernatorial salary ranges from $1,000 in New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont to $10,000 in New York and Pennsylvania.

686. Duties of the Governor.-In general, these are inferior to the duties of the Colonial Governor, who was a vice-regal officer. First of all, the Governor must see that

the laws of the State are faithfully executed. He gives the Legislature information of the affairs of the State, in a message at the beginning of every session. He may, when the occasion calls for it, convoke the Legislature in special session; and in such cases he states in his message his reasons for so doing, and the Legislature, as a rule, can at such session legislate only upon the subjects that he thus brings to its attention. He nominates, and by and with the consent of the Senate, appoints all State officers whose appointment is not otherwise provided for. He fills vacancies in offices occurring in the recess of the Senate, Except in those States that have intrusted the business to a board of pardons, he grants reprieves and pardons to convicted offenders, unless in cases of impeachment. In all the States but four he has a limited veto on legislation. The Governor is commander-in-chief of the militia of the State, except when it is in the service of the United States. He may call out the militia to execute the State laws, to repel invasion, and suppress insurrection. As the commander of the militia, he appoints a military staff; adjutant, quartermaster, and commissary-generals, and aides-de-camp and sometimes also the higher militia officers. In some States the Governor is clothed with far more power than in others.

687. Executive Departments.--Every State has a Secretary of State, who keeps the State records, and has in his keeping the great seal, and a Treasurer, who is custodian of the State funds. Almost always there is an Auditor or Comptroller, whose business it is to examine and audit the public accounts, and draw warrants upon the Treasurer. Commonly there is an Attorney-General, who looks after the legal business of the State in the Supreme Court, and acts as the law adviser of the Governor and Legislature, and exercises some oversight of the county law officers. Mention may also be made of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. In different States are found boards, bureaus, or offices of lands, emigration, labor, agriculture, education, insurance, railroads, statistics, health, mines, charities, and pardons. The principal of the officers enumerated in this section are generally elected by the people of the State ; the minor ones are commonly appointed by the Governor by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 688.

Governor's Relations to Heads of Departments.—These are very different from the relations of the President to the members of his cabinet. Rarely has the Governor anything to do, more than any other citizen, with their appointment or election. They do not necessarily belong to the same political party, and frequently do not. They are elected by the people, and are not responsible to him. They may make their reports to him, but only as a matter of form. They are his colleagues rather than his subordinates. In no sense do they form a cabinet. As a result, the State administration is much less unified and centralized than the National administration.

In Part I. of this work we examined the councils that advised the Colonial Governors in the discharge of their executive duties. Some of them were advisory bodies solely, but most of them were also houses of legislation. Several of the old States, and two or three of the new ones formed from them, still have similar councils, although the legislative power that they once possessed has been handed over to the State Senates. These councils are merely advi. sory bodies to the Governor.

689. The Lieutenant-Governor.-Thirty-two States have such an officer. The Lieutenant-Governor is ex officio president of the Senate, and he succeeds to the office of Governor on the occurrence of a vacancy. Alabama, Delaware, Arkansas, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Tennessee, West Virginia, and Wyoming, have no officer bearing the title. In these States the Senate elects its own president, and in nine of them this president becomes Governor in case of a vacancy. In Maryland the Legislature, if in session, elects a Governor in such cases; otherwise the President of the Senate succeeds to the office. In Oregon the Secretary of State succeeds, and in Wyoming also until the vacancy is filled by an election.

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