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tions, 21 ; Constitutions of the People,
22 ; Constitutions of the Government,
22; Constitutional Governments, 22;
Written Constitutions, 22; Unwritten
Constitutions, 23 ; Advantages of the
Two Kinds of Constitutions, 23 ; Im-
proving Government by Evolution,
23 ; by Revolution, 23.
PRESIDENT, THE QUALIFICATIONS
AND REMOVAL OF, 265-268.-Qualifi-
cations of the President, 265; the
Vice-President, 265; Removal of the
President, etc., 266; the Presidential
Succession, 266; Objections to Old
Rule, 267; Salaries, 268 ; President's
ELECTION OF, 251-256.-Mode of Elec-
tion, 251; Convention's First Decis-
ion, 251; Objections to Election by
Congress, 252; Objections to Popular
Election, 252; Electoral Plan, 252 ;
Plans of Appointing Electors, 253 ;
First Mode of Procedure, 253 ; Three
First Presidential Elections, 254 ;
Election of 1800, 254; Amendment
XII., 254 ; Election of 1825, 256; Elec-
tion of 1876, 256; the Electoral Com-
mission, 257; Law of 1887, 257; the
Vice-President, 257 ; Days Fixed, 258;
Table, etc., 259.
PRESIDENT, THE, POWERS AND DUTIES
OF, 269-283.–The President Com-
mander-in-Chief of Army and Navy,
269; Reprieves and Pardoos, 269 ; the
Treaty-making Power, 270 ; Steps in
Making a Treaty, 270; Congress and
the Treaty Power, 271; Jay's Treaty,
272; Scope of Treaty-making Power,
272; Relation of a Treaty to the
Constitution and Laws, 273 ; Officers
of the United States, 273 ; Classes of
Officers, 274; Employes of the Gov-
ernment, 274; Vesting Appointing
Power, 274; Nomination and Confir-
mation, 275; Courtesy of the Senate,
275; Power of Removal, 276; remov-
als from Office, 276; the Spoils Sys-
tem, 277 ; Civil Service Reform, 277;
Tenure of Office Act of 1867, 278;
Present Rule of Removals, 278; Pub-
lic Ministers, 279; the Army and
Navy, 279; Consuls, 280 ; President's
Relation to Foreign Affairs, 280 ; the
President's Message, 281 ; Special
Sessions, 281; Reception of Ministers,
282; Right of Dismissal, 282; Presi-
dent to Execute the Laws and Com-
mission Officers, 283.
RATIFICATION, 350-351.-Article VII.,
350; Reasons for, 350; Status of States
not Ratifying, 350.
RECONSTRUCTION. See “Slavery and
UNDER THE CONSTITUTION, 155-
159.— Meaning of the Rule, 155;
Method of, 1793-1843, 155; Attempt to
Change the Rule in 1832, 156; Method
of 1843, 156; Method of 1853-1863, 157;
Ninth and Tenth Censuses, 157; Elev-
enth Census, 157; Tables, etc., 158, 159.
SENATE, THE, COMPOSITION AND OR-
GANIZATION OF, 160-163.-Number,
Election, and Term, of Senators, 160;
Classes of Senators, 161; Senate a
Permanent Body, 161; Senator's
Qualifications, 162; Vice-President's
Vote, 162; Oficers of the Senate, 163.
RIGHTS OF, 182-186.-Members of
Congress to be paid, 182; National
Payment, 182; Compensation left to
Congress, 183; Retroactive Compen-
sation, 183; Exemption from Arrest,
184; Not to be Questioned, 184; Rea-
for Prohibitions, 243; Bills of Credit,
243; Obligation of a Contract, 244 ;
Dartmouth College Case, 244; No
Prohibition on Congress, 245; Siatute
of Limitations, 245 ; Inspection Laws,
245; Limits of this Power, 246; Ton.
nage Duties, 246; State Troops,
Ships of War, etc., 246; the States
not Sovereign, 247.
STATES, THE, NATIONAL GUARANTEES
TO, 336–339.—The States Republican,
336; Congress to Decide, 336; Inva-
sion and Domestic Violence, 337; Pro-
cedure in cases of violence, 337; Rea-
sons for Distinction, 337 ; Direct Re-
lation of National Authority to Do-
mestic Violence, 338.
ŚTATES, THE, RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF,
323-326.-Public Acts, Records, etc.,
323; Privileges and Immunities, 323 ;
a Citizen Defined, 324; Fugitives
from Justice, 324; Surrendering Fu-
gitives from Justice, 325; Fugitives
from Service, 325.
STATES, NEW, 327-335.-Western Land
Claims, 327; Western Sessions, 328;
Division of Old States, 329; Admis-
sion of New States, 329; Territorial
Growth, 330; Territory and Terri.
tories, 330; Ordinance of 1787, 330 ;
the Northwest Territory, 331 ; Types
of Territorial Government, 331 ; Pro-
hibition of Slavery in the Northwest,
332 ; Status of a Territory, 332 ; New
States, list of, 333; West Virginia, 334.
STATES, THE, RELATIONS OF, TO THE
UNION, 369-371.- National Constitu-
tion Half a Political System, 369; the
Union Dependent upon the States,
369; Proper State Sphere, 370; Rela-
tions of Citizen to the Two Jurisdic-
SUFFRAQE, 392–396. —How fixed, 392;
Common Rule of Suffrage, 392; Citi-
zenship, 392; Residence, 392; Race,
393; Education, 393; Registration,
393; Religion, 393; Various Disqualifi.
cations, 394; Woman's Suffrage, 394;
Cumulative Voting, 394; Modes of
Voting, 395; Holding Office, 395; Re-
ligious Tests, 395.
TERRITORIAL SYSTEM, THE. See
TREASON, 312--317.—The Crime of, 312;
Abuses of the Punishment of, 312;
Levying War, 313; Giving an Enemy
Aid and Comfort, 313; Modes of Con.
viction, 314; the Punishment De-
clared, 314; the Common Law Punish.
ment, 315; Attainder of Treason, 315;
Power of Congress over Attainder,
315; Meaning of Limitation, 316;
Treason Against a State, 316.
UNION, TÆE, FORMATION OF, 64-72.-
Relations of the Colonies, 64; the
United States, 65 ; Colonies Reorgan-
ized as States, 65; the First Consti-
tutions, 66; Source of New Constitu-
tions, 66; Models of New Constitu-
tions, 67; Transition from Colony to
State, 67; the Union, 68; the Ameri-
can State, 69; Consolidation of Colo-
nies, 69; United Colonies of New Eng-
land, 69; Penn's Plan of Union, 69;
Wars with French and Indians, 70;
Albany Congress of 1754, 70; Stamp
Act Congress, 70; Congress of 1774,
71 ; Congress of 1775, 71; Continental
Congress, 71; the Union Established,
72; New Political Vocabulary, 72.
UNION, THE, LIMITATIONS OF, 236-242.
-Reasons for such Limitations, 236;
the Slave Trade, 236; Habeas Corpus
in England, 237;
the Writ, 237; Cases of Suspension,
238; Who Shall Suspend? 238; Mili-
tary Arrests in Civil War, 238; the
Milligan Case, 239; a Bill of Attain-
der, 239; Ex-Post Facto Laws, 240;
Export Duties, 240 ; Preferences as to
Ports, 241; Entering and Clear-
ing, 241; Congress Controls the
Treasury, 241 ; Titles of Nobility and
UNION, THE, SUPREMACY OF, 343-345.-
Validity of the Public Debt, 343;
Weak Point in a Federal System, 343 ;
the Supreme Law, 344 ; State Judges
Bound, 344; Oath Prescribed, 344;
Limit of the National Supremacy,
345; No Religious Test, 345.
UNION, THE, THEORIES OF, 346–349.-
State Sovereignty, 346; Secession of
Eleven States, 346; the National
Theory, 347; Status of Seceding States
during the Rebellion, 348; Supreme
Court View, 348 ; Antagonistic Theo-
WAR, THE CIVIL. See “Union, The,
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General Introduction to State Gov-
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