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endorsed the work of Mr. Wheelock, and transferred their zeal to the support of the Indian school, out of which sprung the beginning of the college.


The Rev. Eleazer Wheelock, residing in Lebanon, Conn., was led to meditate upon the subject of his means of support, as his people through lack of means failed to provide bountifully. It occurred to him that if they furnished him with but half a living they were en. titled to no more than half of his labors, and he consequently resolved to devote a portion of his time to the education of Indian youth. He at once began his work, which was aided by subscriptions from friends in America and England. The number of pupils, beginning with two, soon rose to thirty, and the Indian charity school was formed. In 1761 the General Court of Massachusetts recognized his efforts, and voted thaù he should be allowed to take under his charge six pupils from the six nations for education, boarding, and clothing, for which he was to receive twelve pounds per annum for each child, to be paid from the public treasury. In the following year the Legislature of New Hampshire granted fifty pounds sterling per annum for five years as aid to the school. However, this was not paid after the first, or possibly after the second year.1

But a growing school and an empty treasury caused Mr. Wheelock to send two agents to England to solicit funds. Accordingly Rev. Mr. Whitaker and Mr. Samson Occum, an Indian preacher, were sent for that purpose in 1765.

A live Indian preacher of a good degree of intelligence, speaking in England, stirred the hearts of the people, and a large sum of money was consequently raised by the agents for the Indian schools, the King being among the chief contributors.?

The favorable results of this mission abroad caused Mr. Wheelock to entertain designs for a college. 'He succeeded in obtaining a charter, granted in 1769. The problem of determining a site for the new school next occupied his attention. Liberal inducements were held out by Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and New Hampshire. It was finally decided after due deliberation to locate the college at Hanover in New Hampshire, and consequently the Indian school was removed there in 1769. The plan for the education of the Indians was embodied in the charter, and the Indian charity school was the basis of the institution chartered. The laudable design of spreading Christian knowledge among the savages of the Americal wilderness," and that“ the best means of education be established in our province of New Hampshire," 3

Smith, 22.

2 Dwight: Travels in New England, II, 100. See also Sparks Life of John Ledyard, ch. I.

3 From a copy of the charter; Smith, 459.



were given as the reasons for granting the charter of Dartmouth Col. lege.

The original design of educating Indians and missionaries to the Indians was frustrated. For three years after the founding only a small number of missionaries and persons destined as candidates for this employment were sent among the Indians; afterwards all efforts ceased in this behalf.

The inhabitants of Hanover presented the college with twelve hundred acres of valuable land; the State of New Hampshire endowed it with about seventy-eight thousand acres more, in several successive grants, the most important of which was made in January, 1789, when the Legislature gave a tract of four thousand two hundred acres located above Stewartstown. By the terms of this grant the Governor and Council of the State for the time being were incorporated with the trustees for the purpose of acting with them in the management of all funds granted to the college by the State. Other grants of a moderate amount were made by the State.

The annual revenue of Dartmouth was, in 1793, from tuition about two thousand dollars; from rent of lands about five hundred dollars. It was expected by contracts made in the same year that the income from rents would be one thousand five hundred dollars in 1797, and two thousand one hundred and sixty-six dollars in 1803.5

One of the most remarkable grants on record is that made by the Legislature of Vermont in 1785–86. Mr.Wheelock appeared before that body at this time and presented the case of the college; as a result of his pleading the Legislature granted to the college the entire township of Wheelock-one-half for the school and one-half for the college. It was this grant which led Daniel Webster to remark that “The State of Vermont is a principal donor to Dartmouth College."6

In 1807, Dr. Wheelock appeared before the General Court and appealed for aid, representing to the Legislature the conditions and needs of the college. As a result of his visit the trustees of the college were granted a township of land six miles square lying on the border of the district of Maine.


The proceeds arising from the sale of the land scrip (one hundred and fifty thousand acres) assigned to New Hampshire were appropriated to the founding of the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, in connection with Dartmouth College at Hanover.

The act making this appropriation was approved July 7, 1866, and before the close of the following year the scrip was sold at an average

i Dwight, II, 103. 4 Dwight, II, 103. 6 Webster's Works, 'V, 482.
2 Ibid., 101.
5 Ibid., 102.

Smith, 83.
3 Smith, 80.

price of fifty-three and one-third cents per acre, yielding eighty thousand dollars, which were invested in six per cent. State bonds.

The general government of the college was vested in nine trustees, five of whom are appointed by the Governor with the advice of the Council, and four are taken from the trustees of Dartmouth College.'

The new college thus obtained the use of the libraries and the appliances of Dartmouth, together with the special advantages of the Thayer School of Architecture and Civil Engineering and the Chandler Scien. tific Department.

The Legislature granted the sum of five thousand dollars for buildings, and later granted twelve thousand dollars for an experimental farm and buildings thereon, on the condition that Hon. Jobu Conant give twelve thousand dollars for the same purpose.

The sum of ten thousand dollars, five thousand for each of two years, 1883 and 1884-85, was voted by the General Assembly of New Hampshire to pay the tuition of indigent students. By this same act it was provided that any resident student of the State is entitled to have his tuition paid by complying with certain conditions.?

Other appropriations have been made, sufficient to make the entire amount granted by the State fifty-four thousand dollars; during the same period the college has received $63,400 in benefactions—that is, the Congressional grant of eighty thousand dollars stimulated addi. tional gifts aggregating $117,400.


Dartmouth College.

Appropriations by the royal province of New Hampshire :

May 27, 1773, for a new building, £500 (lawful money).
April 5, 1777, for the subsistence of the president; £60

$1, 666.66



1, 866.66

Appropriations by the State of New Hampshire :

June, 1805, for general use
September 15, 1883, for education of indigent students

$900 10,000



For the medical department:
June, 1803, for appliances...

June, 1809, for building.

4, 667 Total

5, 267.00 Total money appropriations to Dartmouth exclusive of those made to the College of Agriculture

35, 033. 66

1 Laws of New Hampshire, 1866, chap. 4216. 2 I bid., 1883, chap. 116, p. 92.

3 The writer is indebted to the acting president of the University of Vermont for many important points in this summary.

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Agricultural College.
Total legislative appropriations to the New Hampshire College of Agri-
culture and the Mechanic Arts from 1869 to 1988, inclusive..

71,900.00 Entire money grants

. 106, 933. 66


Land grants to Dartmouth.

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By the Legislature of Vermont, June 24, 1785.....
"By the Legislature of New Hampshire, February 5, 1789
By the Legislature of New Hampsbire, June 18, 1807
By the Legislature of New Hampshire, small grants at different times..

Total land grants

Acres. 23,000 40,960 23, 040 4,000

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... 101,000






The Massachusetts system of schools extended in colonial times to the province of Maine, and the laws enacted by the General Court, or later by the Legislature of the parent State, remained in force in that province until the organization of Maine into a separate State.

The celebrated lawl of 1642, requiring the selectmen to have a vigi. lant eye over their brethren and neighbors” to see that their children and apprentices be taught to read, as well as the subsequent more general law of 1647, which required each town of fifty householders to sustain an elementary school, and each town of one hundred householders a grammar school," obtained throughout the province of Maine.

Thus the condition of education in the province must be determined largely by the general laws enacted by the Court of Massachusetts. The revised laws of 1789 likewise extended to Maine, and were in force at the time of the adoption of the State Constitution in 1820.

Thus the old “ grammar schools” of New England, and subsequently the “New England academies," were found among the educational institutions of Maine, and the endowment of Bowdoin College by the General Court completed the system.

When Maine was organized into a State, the responsibility of education was largely thrown upon the towns. Article VIII of the Constitution of Maine, adopted in 1820, provides for education as follows: "A general diffusion of the advantages of education being essential to the preservation of the rights and liberties of the people, to promote this important object, the Legislature are authorized, and it shall be their duty, to require the several towns to make suitable provision, at their own expense, for the support and maintenance of public schools, and it shall further be their duty to encourage and suitably endow, from time to time, as the circumstances of the people may authorize,

1 See Massachusetts., No. 49, p. 39.

all academies, colleges, and seminaries of learning within the State.” The State reserved the right, prior to making any endowment, to limit or restrain any of the powers vested in the literary institution receiving the said endowment.

There was also incorporated into the Constitution at this time an act passed by the Legislature of Massachusetts June 19, 1819, confirming certain rights and privileges to the State of Maine, and among other things providing that the grants for educational purposes, particularly the bank tax for the support of Bowdoin, and all land grants, should continue upon the same conditions; “but the tax on banks shall be charged upon the banks within the said district of Maine, and paid according to the tenor of said grant.”

Under these provisions the Legislature has from time to time made grants of land and appropriations of money for the aid of institutions of higher learning, and aided academies and grammar schools, and in recent times has established a complete system of high school instruction.


The present free high schools of Maine are not classed with institutions of higher learning, although some of them are characterized by thorough discipline in the classics and the higher branches, but as there is a regularly constituted State system of these schools, they deserve a passing notice.

These schools represent the survivals of the old town grammar schools and the later academies. As the latter have been considered in the monograph on Massachusetts, it is not necessary to explain their nature here. After 1820 the towns began to provide for graded schools and high Schools according to the provisions of the law. By the side of these the private academies continued their work of semi-advanced learning.

The town schools grew more numerous and the academies fewer, until the law of 1873 established a State system of free high schools, and made provision for the absorption of the academies into the system. The law of 1873 provided that when any town had complied with the law by keeping a free high school for at least ten weeks during the year, such town was to “receive from the State one-half of the amount actually expended in said school, not, however, exceeding five hundred dollars, from the State to any one town.” It was enacted the following year that the trustees might turn over the property of any academy to the town, and it should be subject to the conditions of the law."

Bureau of Education, Circular No. 7, 1875.

* Laws of Massachusetts, 1818. The tax on banks was divided among three institutions—Harvard, Williams, and Bowdoin.

* School Law, sec. 95. -

“The languages were not to be taught in the schools unless at the expense of the city or town, except in those existing prior to 1873 in which said languages were taught.

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