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paid for, and that funds had been obtained and well secured, producing an annual net income of one hundred dollars.”.” By a resolution of March 15, 1815, the sum required for investment was raised so as to yield two hundred and fifty dollars per annum. On March 25, 1834, the regents ordered that a building and lot free of any incumbrance and an established school after an approved method be added to the requirements for a charter. By an act of April 17, 1838,” it was provided that any academy owning a building, library, and apparatus worth two thousand five hundred dollars, might be subject to the visitation of the regents. The settled policy of the regents in regard to the incorporation of colleges was published in a report of a committee in 1811, which affirmed “that no college ought to be established until suitable buildings have been provided and a fund created consisting of a capital of at least fifty thousand dollars, yielding an income of three thousand five hundred dollars.”” In 1836 the amount of the required endowment was increased to one hundred thousand dollars, with buildings, grounds, etc., worth thirty thousand dollars, the endowment to be made previous to the granting of the charter, and the whole sum of one hundred and thirty thousand dollars secured before the regents would appoint a president. The above restrictions, though seemingly arbitrary, have doubtless raised the character of institutions, while they have suppressed many attempts to found colleges and academies which must have eventually ended in disaster if not thus early thwarted by the law. When we consider the great number of educational institutions that have been called into existence in the United States without proper means of support, that eke out a miserable existence and finally perish for want of proper direction and support, it will be at once seen that the board of regents of New York have rendered a service to the State in these wise provisions. The legislature by special acts could modify the rulings of the board of regents, as in the case of the granting of the charter to the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City with a required endow. ment of fifty thousand dollars. The great work of the University of the State of New York has been enlarged until the regents have under visitation (1889) 301 academies." There are also under inspection twenty-seven colleges of arts and sciences for men (or men and women), five colleges of arts for women, eighteen medical colleges, and six law schools, making the immense system subject to State control, although the majority of colleges and universities have been granted such extended powers as to be practically independent in their government.

*Hist. Rec., 409. *Hist. Rec., 94. * Statutes of 1838,226. “102d Annual Report of the Regents of the University, 1889.

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50,000 40,000 30,000

120,000 63,000 30,000 37,000

Geneva College : Grants in money, 1838–46.
University of the City of New York: Grants in money, 1838–43.
Elmira Female College: Grants in money, 1867 and 1886..
Fairfield Medical College :

Grant from land sales, 1812..
Grants in money, 1820–25.

10,000
5,000

15,000

5,000 25,000 45,000 15,000 12,000 1 25,000

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890, 241

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The report of 18862 shows the following appropriations of the State for higher education : State appropriation for academies....

$44, 244.74 State appropriation for teachers' classes in academies

31, 667.35 Regents of the University.

14,094. 36 Elmira Female College...

12,000.00 American Museum of Natural History.

16, 942.96

Total.

128, 752.41

Laws of 1867, Chap. 174.
» Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for 1886.

Apportionment to Academies from the Literature and Other Funds.

Total to 1883 taken from Historical Records ..
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889

$1,996, 736

40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 100,000 100,000

Total

2, 356,736

Grants to Academies to aid them in Purchasing Books and Apparatus.

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Expenditures by the Stato for the Maintenance of Teachers' Classes in the Academies under

the Visitation of the Regents.

$22, 800

1836 to 1841, from Historical Records.
1842-1849 not given.
1842 to 1877, from Historical Records .
1878 to 1889, from Historical Records .

459, 247
330,000

Total (except 1842–1849)

812, 047

Summary of Expenditures by the State for Educational Purposes.

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State libraries have become in many States valuable aids to higher education. Though this branch of the subject has not been exhaustively treated, a short sketch of the State Library at Albany, kindly furnished by Hon. David Murray, of that city, will be sufficient to illustrate what may be done toward advanced learning by this means.

The State Library of New York was established by an act of the Legislature passed in 1818. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, the Chancellor of the Court of Chancery, and the Chief Justice of the Su.

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COLONIAL SCHOOLS OF PENNSYLVANIA.

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preme Court were constituted a board of trustees. The Secretary of State, the Attorney-General, and the Comptroller were added to the board of trustees 1 in 1824. By an act? passed in 1844 the regents of the university were created the trustees of the library, and since that time it has remained in their charge. It was at first kept in rooms in the old capitol building, but in 1854 it was transferred to a building erected for itata cost of $94,900. This building was required to be taken down to make way for the new capitol. The library has been finally, in 1889, removed to its permanent and beautiful quarters on the western front of the capitol.

At first the library was mainly a collection of law books. In 1844, when it was transferred to the care of the regents, it was estimated to contain ten thousand volumes, of which three hundred are reported as missing. The Warden collection, containing two thousand two hundred volumes of miscellaneous works, was purchased in 1846 for four thousand dollars. The two largest collections which have been given to the library are the publications of the commissioner of British patents, amounting now (1889) to more than 4,340 volumes, and the library of the late Hon. Harmanus Bleecker, of Albany, numbering about two thousand volumes. According to the report of the library, September 30, 1888, it contained 138,191 volumes, of which 41,231 volumes belonged to the law department and 96,960 volumes to the department of miscellaneous literature.

We give below the amounts appropriated by the State for the purchase of books and the maintenance of the library from its origin to the present time, arranged in periods of ten years :

Expended for the Library.

For the pur

For maintechase of books nance (salaries, and binding. expenses, etc.)

Total.

1818-1828 1829-1838. 1839-1848 1849-1858. 1859-1868 1869-1878. 1879-1888.

$12, 454

9, 883 33, 940 41, 715 49, 635 63, 748 73, 439

$3,627

7,439 18, 296 38, 967 60, 891 85, 165 133, 796

$16, 081 17, 322 52, 236 80, 682 110, 526 148, 913 207, 235 632, 995

Totals

284, 814

.

348, 181

PENNSYLVANIA.

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COLONIAL SCHOOLS. During the occupation of Pennsylvania by the Swedes, and subsequently by the Dutch, until the English occupation, there was but little exercise of the duties of a State, owing to the diffusion of the small number of settlers. Yet from the condition of affairs in the mother

1 Chap. 239, Laws of 1824.

2 Chap. 255, Laws of 1844.

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countries, Sweden and Holland, and from the instructions and privileges contained in the first charters, we may determine the attitude of these colonists toward education, and may infer what would have been the result had they remained in power.

EDUCATION AMONG THE SWEDES.

In Sweden the church was a state institution, and the state had intrusted to its care the education of youth, and, through the agency of the church, free schools were established throughout the kingdom. That such a policy was to be continued to the colonists is indicated by the privileges granted to the new colony by the Queen in 1640.

Among other things concerning social improvement it is enjoined that “The patrons of this colony shall be obliged to support at all times as many ministers and school-masters as the number of inhabitants shall seem to require, and to choose, moreover, for this purpose persons who have at heart the conversion of the pagan inhabitants to Christianity.”

EDUCATION AMONG THE DUTCH.

The Dutch colonists in Pennsylvania, as in New York, were tireless in their efforts to establish schools for their children, yet the means for accomplishing the desired end were meagre, indeed. The duties of minister and school-master were often combined, and churches were frequently used in place of school-houses. In all probability there was not a school-house with a regularly organized School in existence among the Pennsylvania colonists until after the territory passed into the hands of the English. Nevertheless, all available means were used to promote education, and the sentiments were there, awaiting more favorable circumstances for their full expression.

In the Charter of Privileges granted to the “lords and patroons” of New Netherlands in 1630 to 1635, it is provided in section 28 that “the patroons shall also particularly exert themselves to find speedy means to maintain a clergyman and schoolmaster, etc.,” and in the articles and conditions to emigrants published by the Chamber at Amsterdam, section 8 says that “each householder and inhabitant shall bear such tax and public charge as shall hereafter be considered proper for the maintenance of comforters of the sick, schoolmasters, and such like necessary officers.”

Later than this, in the conditions offered to the settlers in the colony of

New Castle on the Delaware in 1656, a “house for a school” was author."

ized, and they obligated to “pay the salary of a minister and schoolmaster.””

1 Hazard: Annals of Pennsylvania, 53. * Quoted by Wickersham, Education in Pennsylvania, 8. 3Ibid.

“Ibid., 9.

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