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relating to the colony. Thus, in 1640, in the grant to Henry Hockhammer and others to establish a settlement in New Sweden, we find that “the patrons of this colony shall be obliged to support, at all times, as many ministers and school-masters as the number of inhabitants shall seem to require, and to choose, moreover, for this purpose, persons who have at heart the conversion of the pagan inhabitants to Christianity.”* Similar directions are contained, in the instructions to Governor Printz in 1642.” After the colony passed into the hands of the Dutch, in 1655, provisions for education continued to be made. In the conditions offered by the city of Amsterdam to settlers in its colony at Newcastle, 1656, we read: “Said city shall cause to be erected,” a house for public worship, “also house for a school. * * * The city shall provisionally provide and pay the salary of a minister and school-master.” We have no evidence, however, that the school was built. Indeed, “there is no record showing the existence of a school-house in the colonies on the Delaware up to the year 1682.”* This does not mean that there was no education; the churches served as school-houses and the clergymen as teachers, as was frequently the case in Europe at that time.” Much instruction was also given at home, as the scattered character of the settlements made necessary. There also seem to have been schoolmasters, for we find Andreas Hudde applying to the director-general and council for appoinment as school-master in 1654,” and in 1663 the inhabitants of Tinnekonk desired to engage Abelius Zetscoven for a similar service, but those of New Amstel would not dismiss him." For sometime after the English gained control of the colony the Swedes on the Delaware maintained schools of their own, in which Swedish teachers were employed and the Swedish language taught, but in the eighteenth century these schools quietly disappeared.” The preamble of an act of the Assembly in 1744 is interesting, as showing the continuance of the close connection of religion with education. It reads thus: “Whereas, Sundry Religious Societies of People within this Government * * * have * * * purchased small Pieces of Land within this Government, and thereon have erected Churches and other Houses of religious Worship, School-Houses.” The educational condition of Delaware, or the Territories, as it was then called, in 1758 is thus described by a contemporary writer: “In almost every ridge of

1 Hazard: Annals of Pennsylvania, 53.

2 Narrative and Critical History of America, IV, 453.

* New York Colonial Documents, I, 620.

*Ibid., 11.

*Ibid., 15.

* Hazard, 173.

7Ibid., 353.

*Ibid., 79.

*Laws of the Government of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex upon Delaware: Wilmington, 1763, I, 272. The act confirmed the titles of the religious bodies to the lands.

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woods there is a school-house.

None, whether boys or girls, are now growing up who cannot read English, write, and cipher.

So far education and religion had gone hand in hand. In 1796 the Legislature directed that the receipts from marriage and tavern licenses between February 9, 1796, and January 1, 1806, should be set aside to establish schools for the purpose of giving the inhabitants a good English education. It was distinctly provided that the same should “not be applied to the erecting or supporting any academy, college, or university in the State.2 With one exception this is the first instance of State aid to education in Delaware.

The exception referred to was the grant of a lot of land in New Cas. tle in 1772 for the support of a school. The land was vested in trustees for the use of a school, with directions that a school house or houses be built thereon,3


We find the germ of Delaware College in an act of 1818, which permitted a lottery for the purpose of raising fifty thousand dollars to establish a college at Newark. In 1821 the college was granted the proceeds of certain taxes on stage lines and on steam-boats plying between Philadelphia and points on the Delaware. The tax on stage lines was to be eight per cent, on all fares received from persons over fourteen years of age, and four per cent. from those between four and fourteen. Each steam-boat was to pay twenty-five cents for each passenger over fourteen, and twelve-and-a-half cents for every one between four and fourteen. This act was repealed the next year. In 1824 it was ordered that the money raised by the above methods should be invested in some productive stock, and that this stock, the dividends on it, and further donations should form the "College Fund." In 1833 Newark College was incorporated. The money for its erection and maintenance was to be supplied by the “ College Fund." In 1835 another lottery was authorized to raise fifty thousand dollars for the college.

By the act of Congress granting land for agricultural colleges, Delaware received ninety thousand acres. The grant was accepted in 1867, and it was directed that the proceeds of the sales of land scrip should

1 Acrelius: History of New Sweden, translated by Wm. M. Reynolds, D. D., as Vol. XI of the Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, pp. 351, 352.

Laws of Delaware, I, 1996. Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1876, 55. * Laws of New Castle, Kent, and Sassex, II. 28.

* Laws, V, 23. A lottery had been anthorized in isll to raise ten thousand dellars for the use of the college of Wilmington (Laws, IV, 465), and similar instances occur in the case of academies.

* Laws VI, 01. bid., 203,

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be invested in bonds for the benefit of Delaware College at Newark, which was adopted as the State college in the same year. In 1873 the State granted the college three thousand dollars a year for the next two years. Four years later the agricultural college bonds were cancelled, and certificates of permanent indebtedness issued, bearing interest at six per cent."

We thus find Delaware giving financial aid to Newark College through a long period, adopting it as Delaware College in 1867, and maintaining it to-day as a State institution. From the nature of the assistance given, no money estimate of it can be made.



Laws, XIII, 127. Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1867, 143; same for

50. Ibid., XIV, 374. 3 Ibid., XV, 437.






The similarity of views entertained and expressed by the people of the different colonies on the subject of education is, in itself, sufficient evidence that they were capable of being united into a great nation.

The people of the colonial period did not all approach the subject in the same way nor attempt to solve the problem of schools alike, but in the variety that characterized their actions there existed a common sentiment favoring universal education for a free and sovereign people. Freedom meant then, as now, something more than release from despotism and the shackles of human bondage. It meant an emancipated mind, a cultivated nature, an enlightened understanding. Let that educational pessimist who now sits down discouraged at the outlook, in this age of colleges, libraries, and apparatus, surrounded by the wealth of old and flourishing communities, and in the presence of thousands of young men and women who are capable, willing, and able to receive the highest culture, consider the high resolves of the early communities, the self-denials, the grinding poverty, the thirst for knowledge in behalf of the rising generation, and the use of every opportunity for the upbuilding of the State and people, and he will be strengthened in educational faith and in hope for the future.

Let him consider the attempts of rude settlements to plant institutions of learning in the wilderness, or in sparsely settled communities, and he will never look with contempt upon small beginnings nor sneer at half-equipped colleges.

In the group of States to be considered in this chapter, the idea of independent State action in education reached its maximum among the original Commonwealths of the nation. Virginia, though not the foremost to declare for this principle, sounded the clearest note and attained the highest results. The royal charter, the early schools, the founding of William and Mary College were indeed for humanity and the Gospel. The Assembly very early gave its support to these ends, but the University of Virginia was for the people and the State. It was a State university, created by the State, controlled by the State, and supported by the State. It represented a people's higher education. Not only did the University of Virginia tend to strengthen administration and


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