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evidently been used up in defraying the expenses of the government, and could not at that time have been produced.
The action of the State Legislature four years before, in their haste to dispose of the seminary lands, strengthens this view. In 1829 the Legislature had authorized the sale of these lands at public auction, with a minimum price placed upon them of $1.25 an acre. In a short time sixty-seven and a half out of the seventy-two sections were sold, and but three of them for more than the minimum price. At this time there was no institution dependent upon the proceeds of these sales for support, nor, so far as can be learned, did the Legislature contemplate establishing one. As a matter of fact none was established for over a quarter of a century. It is evident from a careful review of the trans. actions of these few years that the State Government was in need of money to defray its expenses, and, rather than raise it by a tax upon the people, sold out at auction these lands appropriated by the Federal Government for the benefit of a seminary of learning.4
After the sale of the seminary lands the derived proceeds, together with the coilege fund, were borrowed at once by the State at six per cent. interest, the interest to be added to the principal until used. This action on the part of the State confirms the view expressed above, that it needed money and adopted this means of obtaining it. It will be noticed further, that the addition each year of the interest to the principal was a mere nominal transaction. The transfer needed simply to be made upon the books. In 1835 it was provided that the interest should be loaned to the school fund for distribution over the State. This continued until the establishment of the State Normal University in 1857, when the income of the college and seminary funds was turned over to it.?
The State has never repaid the interest on the seminary fund during this period (1835–1857) though it has paid that of the college fund.
The proceeds of the sale of the seminary lands amounted in all to about sixty thousand dollars, and the interest on this for twenty-two years, which was never repaid, amounted to twenty thousand dollars.10
The college fund, or one-sixth of three per cent. ot'the proceeds of the sale of public lands, amounted to $118,790. Part of the interest upon this was granted for the erection of the State Normal University build
For full discussion of this and the following, see Knight, 205. 2 Illinois Laws.
3 Pillsbury: Sketch of the Permanent Public School Funds of Illinois ; Illinois School Report for 1881-82, cxxxiii.
4 See Knight, 206.
ing in 1857. The remainder of the interest up to 1882 was added to the principal, which at that date stood upon the State auditor's books at $156,613.
COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES.
The only assistance that the State of Illinois gave to higher education in this early period was in granting charters to academies and colleges. At first even these were not given without jealous restrictions;' for instance, no professor of theology was allowed to occupy a college chair, no theological department was to be created in any form, no religious test was to be made in the selection of trustees, etc., and the AttorneyGeneral was especially authorized to proceed at once against any college corporation that should violate these restrictions in any respect. It is interesting to notice in this connection that the constitutions of Illinois down to the one of 1870 did not recognize the establishment of schools as a public function. The Constitution of 1848 indirectly recognized the usefulness of schools by giving the General Assembly power to exempt certain school or college property froin taxation at discretion.3
The Legislature of 1840–41 abolished the above theological restrictions, and repealed the section which prohibited a college corporation holding land exceeding one square mile in perpetuity.*
The Legislature of 1842–43 passed a general law for the incorporation of colleges, and exempted ten acres of land owned by any literary in. stitution from taxation, and for colleges and seminaries of learning 160 acres used as their location, including buildings and apparatus. This same Legislature also founded the State Museum of Geology.
STATE NORMAL UNIVERSITY.
The State Normal University was established by an act of the Legislature February 18, 1857. As mentioned above, the interest on the college and seminary funds was appropriated to the university, except one-twenty-fourth per cent., which had previously been granted to the Deaf and Dumb Institute at Jacksonville.
The treatment of normal schools does not properly come within the scope of this work, but an exception must be made in the case of the normal schools of Illinois, for the reason that they were endowed with funds appropriated by Congress for a college and a seminary of learning. The president of the State Normal University, in the School Report for 1865-66, defends at some length the position that that institution was, in the dictionary sense of the term, a college, and a proper receptacle for the Congressional grant to the State of Illinois. The fact that there was occasion for such a defence indicates that this view was not universally accepted. Since, however, it was the State which put this construction upon the nature of the university, and since later it
1 Pillsbury: Illinois School Report,
2 Willard, cxi.
4 Willard, cxv.
has made appropriations for the maintenance of the Southern Normal University, established in 1869, its aid to these institutions should be considered as an aid toward higher education.
· The State of Illinois did nothing, however, toward the maintenance of the State Normal University, except to transfer the interest of the seminary and college funds to its support. In 1869 the Southern Illinois Normal University was incorporated, and since 1877 the income of both funds has been equally divided between the two normal schools.1
By the same act which incorporated the Southern Illinois Normal University seventy-five thousand dollars were appropriated to erect buildings. In 1871 the State Legislature appropriated fifty thousand dollars, and in 1873 eighty thousand dollars, for the completion of the buildings. In 1885 one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. were appropriated for the rebuilding of property destroyed by fire.
GROWTH OF HIGHER EDUCATION.
Although no organized effort was made on the part of the State in the interests of higher education until very late in the history of Illinois, its need was felt and other means were found for supplying seminaries and colleges. As early as 1700 the French Jesuits are said to. have founded a college at Kaskaskia. But this report is not to be accepted without reserve. No trace of such an institution remains, and it is very probable tbat the college existed principally in name, and in the cherished hopes of it, founders.
In the early part of this century, when Illinois was gradually becoming settled, academies endowed by private means sprang up in different parts of the State, followed later by colleges and seminaries similarly endowed. In 1841 there were in existence seven thriving colleges and forty-one academies.? The abolishing of certain restrictions upon colleges in this same year, and the extension of the rights of colleges to hold property a few years afterward, show that the State was begin. ning to awaken to the needs of a higher education. The establishment of the State Normal University in 1857 was a decided step taken in the direction of higher education by the State. Indeed, it is claimed that the movement which gave to the States their industrial colleges had its origin in Illinois. At all events, the project was first given tangible shape at a farmers' convention held in Granville, November 18, 1851, in which Prof. J. B. Turner, of Jacksonville, presented his “plan for an industrial university for the State of Illinois." 8
We come now to the main effort made by the State of Illinois toward higher education, viz., in establishing
Pillsbury: Ill. Sch. Rep., 1881–82,
6 Willard, xcix.
THE ILLINOIS INDUSTRIAL UNIVERSITY.
In accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress donating public lands to the several States, for the purpose of establishing ag. ricultural colleges, the State Legislature in the early months of 1867 passed acts for the location, organization, and endowment of the Illinois Industrial University. By one of the provisions of the organization act, the Governor was empowered to appoint a board of trustees? consisting of five persons, resident in each of the judicial grand divisions of the State, together with one resident in each of the Congressional districts of the State. This board was a body corporate and politic, and had complete control of the financial management of the institution. At the first regular meeting the trustees were empowered to appoint a regent, who, together with the Governor, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and president of the State Agricultural Society, should be ex officio members of the board of trustees. Said regent should be charged with the general supervision of the educational facilities and interests of the university, and his term of office should be two years.
Illinois received, according to her representation in Congress, four hundred and eighty thousand acres of land scrip. The endowment fund derived from this source was a little over four hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and about fifteen thousand acres of land located in Minnesota and Nebraska, value undetermined.
The scrip was turned over by the State to the trustees of the university. In consideration of the permanent location of the university at Urbana, Champaign County, it received the Urbana and Champaign Institute buildings and grounds, containing about ten acres. Also, one hundred and sixty acres of land adjacent thereto; also, four hundred acres of land
distant not exceeding one mile from the corporate limits of the city of Urbana. Also four hundred and ten acres of land
within one mile of the buildings herein offered. Also the donation offered by the Illinois Central Railroad Company, of fifty thousand dollars' worth of freight over said road for the benefit of said university. The university also received from the county oyer one hundred thousand dollars in bonds, fruit trees, shrubbery, etc. In all, the university received in consideration of its location an estimated amount of four hundred and fifty thousand dollars.
The first appropriation made by the State Legislature for the benefit of the State university was in March, 1869. The appropriation amounted to sixty thousand dollars in all, twelve thousand five hundred dollars per annum for two years to the agricultural department, ten thousand dollars per annum for two years to the horticultural department, five thousand dollars to the chemical department, and ten thousand dollars for apparatus, books, etc.
1 Illinois Laws.
In April, 1871, an additional appropriation of one hundred and twentyfive thousand dollars was made; seventy-five thousand dollars for the erection of a main building, to contain a hall, library, geological, zoölogical, and botanical rooms, etc., twenty-five thousand dollars for the erection of a building for the mechanical department, five thousand five hundred dollars for chemical and mining departments, three thousand five hundred dollars for the horticultural department, sixteen thousand dollars for the agricultural, and ten thousand dollars for incidental expenses, apparatus, books, etc.
In 1873 an act was passed “making an appropriation in aid of the Industrial University and for payment of taxes on lands held by the State for the use of said institution.” The whole appropriation amounted to twenty-one thousand dollars, one thousand five hundred dollars of which was in aid of experimental farming, and six thousand dollars for taxes on the lands held by the university.
An act to regulate the Illinois Industrial University and to make ap. propriations therefor was approved May 7, 1873. By this act some changes were made in the organization and management of the university. The number of trustees was changed to nine, of which a chosen three should constitute an executive committee, “who, when said board is not in session, shall have the management and control of the said university and its affairs." Instructions were given the treasurer by this act regarding part of the endowment fund, which was soon to become due. Also, provisions were made for obtaining the fifty thousand dollars' worth of freight donated by the Illinois Central Railroad to the university. Also, by this act the sum of $44,550 was granted for the pay. ment of the expenses incurred in the completion and furnishing of the main building.
In April, 1875, an appropriation of $11,500 was made to be used in the payment of taxes, for apparatus for the physical laboratory, veterinary department, and printing establishment.
By an act of May 18, 1877, sixteen thousand dollars were appropriated for taxes on lands and current expenses, and fifty-three thousand dol. lars for new buildings, enlargements, etc.
This was followed by an act of May 22, 1879, appropriating $24,509 for current expenses, taxes, improvements, etc., and by an act of May 28, 1881, granting $40,300 for similar purposes. Current expenses were met in 1883–84 by an appropriation of $54,500.
In June, 1885, the name of the Illinois Industrial University was changed by an act of the Legislature to that of the University of Illinois, the name by which it is known at the present time.
In 1885 an act approved June 27, 1885, appropriated $53,500 for current and improvement expenses.
The last appropriation, made in 1887, granted $26,666 for current expenses and repairs.
To sum up, the University of Illinois has received since its establish