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to the expiration of the twenty-five years if so determined by the board of commissioners.

The value of long leases, with frequent appraisals, and opportunities for sales represent the best method of dealing with public lands. In this way the “unearned increment" and the increasing rent will accrue to the holder.

The proceeds of the sales were to be invested in United States securities, as under prior enactment, while rents were to pass into a separate fund.

There are two funds created, the endowment fund and the regent's fund. The former is composed of the permanent investments of the proceeds of the sales of the lands granted to the State by Congress. This fund is kept by the financier in two separate accounts, the university and the agricultural college account. The second is the available fund arising from rent, interest, taxes, etc.?

Nearly the whole body of public university lands are held by the institution, though the sales are progressing and there are a considerable number of leases. The following statement is taken from a report made in 1882.3

Agricultural college lands. Number of acres belonging to the State November 30, 1880...

89, 452. 78 Number of acres leased from November 30, 1880, to December 1, 1882...... 17,522.78 Number of acres sold on time from November 30, 1880, to December 1, 1882.. 3,877.61

University lands.
Number of acres belonging to the State December 1, 1880....

45, 039.93 Number of acres leased from November 30, 1880, to December 1, 1882.... 6,024. 33 Number of acres sold on time from November 30, 1880, to December 1, 1882 2 358.53

The aggregate number of acres granted to the State by Congress was 136,080. It appears from the above statement that at this date (December 1, 1882) patents had been granted on less than 2,367.39 acres, while the remainder, 134,492.61 acres were still in the hands of the State. Two sections were set apart for a model and experimental farm.

REVENUES.

The first permanent tax was voted for the benefit of the university in 1869, when a tax of one mill on each dollar of taxable property was levied for the year 1869 and annually thereafter.'

This rate was changed in 1870–71 to one-fourth of a mill, and subsequently into three-eighths of a mill on a dollar of the grand valuation of the State."

1 Revised Statutes, chap.80, secs. 17 and 19; Laws, 1879, p. 110.
2 Revised Statutes, chap. 80, p. 513.
3 Report of the public officers of Nebraska, 1881-82; Public lands, 15.
*Laws 1869, p. 126.
6 Laws 1870-71, p. 118.

The present revenues of the university are derived from three sources, of which the principal one is the tax of three-eighths of a mill on a dollar just alluded to.

The next in importance is the revenue on the United States land endowment.

Although the income from taxation is gaining each year, the latter source will, doubtless, in time, be by far the more productive. The third source of revenue is very small as compared with the other two, sources, that is the matriculation and term fees. The financial statement in the biennial report of the board of regents shows a total biennial income of $81,924, seven-eighths of this arising from the State tax, nearly one-eighth from the income on land endowment, and the remainder from fees. The regents' report of 1886 shows a biennial income for the two years ending with 1886, of $155,709.85. Nearly three-fifths of this is yielded by the State tax, two-fifths from the income on land, and a small amount paid by students for matriculation, etc., formning the remainder. Although the income has nearly doubled in four years, the income on land has gained rapidly on the State tax.

SPECIAL APPROPRIATIONS BY THE STATE.

The Legislature of Nebraska has from time to time made appropriations for university buildings and improvements. The following are the principal items of expense: 1883.--For medical college

$2,000 1884.–For steam heating ..

10,000 1884.--For chemical laboratory ..

25,000 1846.-For industrial college buildings

50,000 1886.–For repairs.....

5,500 1887.-Grant Memorial Hall..

15,000 Making in all for special appropriations

107,500 In addition to this the sum of $554,195.49 has been appropriated for the support of the university through the tax of three-eighths of a mill on each dollar of the grand assessment roll.

The following statement has been furnished me through the courtesy of Prof. H. W. Caldwell, of the University of Nebraska:

Nebraska State University, biennial income. 1869–70.-State tax, one mill

$26, 436.74 1871-72.-State tax, one mill

50,998.65 1873–74.-State tax, three-eighths of a mill

31, 885. 70

126.76 Interest on loan to the State

2, 280.00

$111, 727.85

Land .....

Total.....

History and Resources of the University of Nebraska, 1884. 2 Regents' Report 1886, 16.

3 The biennial- really is from December 1, 1868, to December 1, 1870, and from Docember 1, 1870, to December 1, 1872, etc.

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1881–82.-State tax, three-eighths of a mill

70, 307. 20
5, 678.84
2, 137.07

University land.
Agricultural land
Interest on bonds
Library fund

300.00
695.00

Total...

79, 118. 11

1883–84.-State tax, three-eighths of a inill

University lands..
Agricultural land
Interest on bonds..
Library fund

76,434.71
15, 520.84
13, 343.97

425. 00
1,440.00

Total

107, 164.52

1885–86.-State tax, three-eighths of a mill

University land
Agricultural land
Interest on bonds
Library fund.....

56, 667. 87
18,771.62
41, 313. 36
2,955.95
1, 165, 00

Total ...

120,873.80

1887–88.-State tax, three-eighths of a mill

University land.
Agricultural land.
Interest on bonds.
Library fund

110, 179.74
18,652.98
37, 650.93
2, 670.00
1,435.00

Total

170,588.65

1889-90.-Estimated income all sources $225,000 to $250,000.

COLORADO.

In the historical development of education in the United States it is surprising to observe the rapidity with which the communities and States of the far West have established systems of education.

Following the example of the early colonists of the Atlantic coast, the settlers of the West have scarcely provided shelter and food for their families before plans were made for schools and education.

The chief attractions of Colorado being those of mining and stockraising, the elements that made up its early population differ somewhat from those of the great farming States of the Mississippi Valley. In the latter States the settlers were seeking homes for their families; in Colorado they were mostly adventurers without families, seeking wealth. Nevertheless these adventurers were of the sturdy sort, coming from the older States, where they were familiar with the best systems of education, and their sentiments in favor of schools developed at an early date in the history of the Territory.

FIRST LEGISLATION. At the first Legislative Assembly held at Denver, in 1861, a school law was framed, patterned largely after that then in existence in the State of Illinois,' and at the same session a university was incorporated, to be located at Boulder. The act providing for a university remained a dead letter on the statute-books until 1870.2

At the second session of the Legislature a novel method was adopted to raise the ordinary school revenues. A part of the act reads as follows: “ That hereafter when any new mineral lode of either gold bearing quartz, silver, or other valuable metal shall be discovered in this Territory, one claim of one hundred feet in length on such lode shall be set apart and held in perpetuity for the use and benefit of schools in this Territory, subject to the control of the Legislative Assembly.93

This seemed to promise an ample support for the schools, but the actual results were insignjficant. “Not one per cent. of the thousands of claims so located ever contributed a dollar to the school fund.94

In the year 1865 the inhabitants of the Territory elected delegates to a constitutional convention, and a State Constitution was framed with the following proviso in favor of higher education: “The Legislative Assembly shall encourage the promotion of intellectual, moral, scientific, and agricultural improvement by establishing a uniform system of public schools of a higher grade, embracing normal, preparatory, and university departments; but no religious institution of a strictly secta. rian character shall receive the aid of the State.99 5

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The people supposed that they were acting under an enabling-act passed by Congress in 1864, when supporting the above measure, but their proceedings were deemed irregular by the President, and they therefore failed to receive recognition from him.'

UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER.

The act authorizing a State university created a board of fifteen trustees, and this number was increased to twenty in 1870. The same year an organization was effected, and a committee authorized to select a site. In the following year three public-spirited citizens donated to the university fifty-two acres of land adjoining the city of Boulder, valued at five thousand dollars. Efforts were made in 1872 to obtain a grant from the Legislature for building purposes, but nothing was effected until 1874, when fifteen thousand dollars was appropriated on the condition that a like sum should be raised among the people. This was accomplished, and in May, 1875, the sum of thirty thousand dollars thus raised was placed to the credit of the university. In the same year Congress set apart seventy-two sections of land for the support of the State University. The Constitution adopted in the following year (1876) provided that the university at Boulder should become au institution of the State, thus entitling it to the lands appropriated by Congress, and further, made provision for the management and control of the university.

The organic act establishing the university and providing for its maintenance dates from March 15, 1877. In this act the object of the institution is set forth in the following words:

“ To provide the best and most efficient means of imparting to young men and women, on equal terms, a liberal education and thorough knowledge of the different branches of literature, the arts, and the sciences with their varied applications."

The first building was completed in 1876 and the school opened the following year.

For the permanent support of the university the Legislature voted, at its first session, a tax of one-fifth of a mill upon the assessed value of all property in the State, and made provision to secure a permanent fund from the sale of the lands donated by Congress.

The Legislature has also made the following special appropriations: In 1878 the sum of seven thousand dollars was voted for apparatus, furniture, etc., and in 1883 a special fund was raised by a tax levy of one-fifth of a mill for the two succeeding years (1883–84), which amounted to about forty thousand dollars. This fund was expended in improving the grounds and on additional buildings, furniture, books, etc.

Circular of Education, No. 7, 99. * Calendar, 1887–88.

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