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AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL SCHOOLS. 51
THE EFFECTS OF THE GRANT ON EDUCATION.

Nothing has ever taken the place of the old classical school, with its conventional four years' course in the philosophies and languages; but

that it was not adequate to the demands of a great people of diversi-.

fied industries has been thoroughly demonstrated by the people of the
country in their earnest support of those institutions giving instruction
in branches relating more directly to the arts of life.
There is a division of the direction and tendency of education para-
mount to the division of labor in industries. The inauguration of an
educational system with a tendency toward the practical arts and in-
dustries not only supplements our commercial and mechanical activities
with intelligence, but it calls into use a large amount of wealth, the
wealth of youthful mind-force, which otherwise would have been lost
to the community through the distaste for Greek and Latin and ab-
stract theories.
It has been held by some individuals, and at times by some legisla-
tures, that the administration of education by the State is a great ex-
travagance, and a plea of economy and for low taxes is always used to
defeat appropriations. To this class of arguments the Hon. Andrew
D. White answers as follows: “Talk of economy' Go to your State
Legislatures—what strange ethics in dealing with the public institu-
tions! If asked for money to found an asylum for idiots and lunatics
or the blind or the deaf and dumb, you will find legislatures ready to
build palaces for them. Millions of dollars are lavished upon your
idiots and deaf and dumb and blind and lunatics. Right glad I am it
is so; but when you come to ask aid even in measured amounts for the
development of the young men of the State, upon whom is to rest its
civilization, and from whom is to flow out its prosperity for ages to
come, the future makers of your institutions and laws, how are they to
be left to the most meagre provision during all their preparation?”

EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

In connection with the agricultural land grant should be mentioned the supplementary act of Congress, approved March 2, 1887, authorizing the establishment of experiment stations in connection with agricultural colleges.

In itself this is not higher education, though it may lead directly to higher scientific training. It is merely a laboratory for one or more branches of knowledge, and is as essential as a cabinet for the study of mineralogy. Extracts from the act will best illustrate its purpose:

“SEC. 2. That it shall be the object and duty of said experiment stations to conduct original researches or verify experiments on the physiology ... of plants and animals; the diseases to which they are severally subject, with the remedies for the same; the chemical composition of useful plants at their different stages of growth; the comparative advantages

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of rotative cropping as pursued under a varying series of crops; the capacity of new plants or trees for acclimation; the analysis of soils and water; the chemical composition of manures, natural or artificial, with experiments designed to test their comparative effects on crops of different kinds; the adaptation and value of grasses and forage plants; the composition and digestibility of the different kinds of food for domestic animals; the scientific and economic questions involved in the production of butter and cheese ; and such other researches or experiments bearing directly on the agricultural industry of the United States as may be in each case deemed advisable, having due regard for the varying conditions or needs of the respective States and Territories.

SEC. 4. That for the purpose of paying the necessary expenses of condueting investigations and experiments and printing and distributing the result as hereinbefore prescribed, the sum of $15,000 is hereby appropriated to each State, to be especially provided for by Congress in the appropriations from year to year, etc."

In 1887 twenty-two colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts report themselves as sustaining relations to State agricultural stations. 1 These colleges have taken or doubtless will take advantage of this act.

SPECIAL GRANTS AND APPROPRIATIONS.

The Government has made from time to time certain small grants for specific purposes for the aid of education.

The following list is taken in part from the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1876. It is evident that several of these items should not be counted as applying to the support of higher education, but they are given here as a matter of interest and as exceptions to a general custom or policy of the Government in aiding miscellaneous institutions :

Acres. ALABAMA.- Lafayette Academy

480.00 FLORIDA.--Chattahoochee Arsenal, buildings, land, etc., to the State.... GEORGIA.-Dahlonega Arsenal, grounds, buildings, to Agricultural College 10. 00 KENTUCKY.-Center College (originally to deaf and dumb asylum) 22,400.00 LOUISIANA.-Pine Grove Academy (quitclaim by United States)

4,040.00 MISSISSIPPI.-Jefferson College, lot at Natchez..

30. 00 TENNESSEE.-Fisk University, land and buildings

3. 25 WEST VIRGINIA.-Storer College, four lots and buildings at Harper's

Ferry... MISSOURI.-Certain lots, commons, etc., confirmed to towns for the purposes of education

1, 406. 50 DAKOTA.—Holy Cross Mission .....

160.00 CONNECTICUT.-Asylum) for the education of the deaf and dumb..

23, 040.00 MICHIGAN.-Sault Ste. Marie.....

1.26 Mackinac, lot and building MINNESOTA.-Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church.

80,00.

Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1886-87, p. 707.
2 Acts of Congress, 1812, 1824, and 1831.
3 Not considered in the range of this paper.

SPECIAL GRANTS. AND APPROPRIATIONS.

53

In this classification it is shown that 51,651.01 acres have been granted, aside from those lots whose areas have not been determined. Out of this number at least 26,963.25 acres have been devoted to the cause of higher education.

Tennessee also received, in 1806, a special grant of one hundred thousand acres of land, fifty thousand for each of two colleges, one to be located in East and one in West Tennessee. At the same time an additional one hundred thousand acres were granted for the support of academies, one in each county,

GRANTS OF THE PROCEEDS OF THE SALE OF PUBLIC LANDS.

Many special grants of certain percentages of the proceeds of the sales of public lands were made by Congress to the several States. These percentages varied with each grant, the Government following a general policy rather than any specific act. Ohio received the first grant, consisting of three per cent. of the sales of land, to be laid out in building highways. Each of the States from this time on, with the exception of Maine, Texas, and West Virginia, received either three or five per cent. of said sales. The grants were devoted to purposes of internal improvement or to education, according to the terms of the contract.

Illinois, by an act of April 18, 1818, specified that one-sixth of the sums derived from this source should be exclusively bestowed on a college or university. From 1821 to 1869 Illinois received the amount of $713,445.75. The whole amount received by the several States as percentages on land sales (to 1876) is $6,508,819.11. Of this sum it is estimated that $2,997,234.35 have been devoted to education, but it is impossible to determine what part of this fund has been used in the support of higher education. Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Florida, Oregon, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Arkansas, and Nevada have applied the proceeds of the percentages to the support of education. In 1841 ten per cent. of the proceeds of the sales of public lands within their respective borders were granted to the following States without specification regarding the disposal of the same, viz: Ohio, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Michigan.}

SALINE AND SWAMP LANDS.4

An act was passed September 28, 1850, granting to the several States the disposal of certain swamp lands, after being redeemed by the States. It was intended that these lands should pay for the construc

Cf. Tennessee.
2 These States had no public lands within their borders.
3 U. S. Statutes at Large, V, 453.
* See Appendix B.
5 Revised Statutes of United States, sections 2479-90,

tion of levees and for the necessary expenses of drainage. Many of the States devoted these lands to the cause of education. J

The total amount of swamp lands patented to the States from the date of the first grant to 1876 is 47,802,271.16 acres." It is quite impossible to state how much of the proceeds of the sales of these lands was devoted to higher education. California appropriated a large amount to the State university. It is provided in the Constitutions of Louisiana, Indiana, and Mississippi that the proceeds of the sales of swamp lands shall be set apart for the support of public education. Also the States of Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin have by statute laws placed these proceeds in the general school fund. Other acts have granted special amounts of so-called saline lands to the several States. Ohio realized $41,024 from this source, and Indiana, $85,000, which sums were added to the school fund. We find that Iowa devoted part of the proceeds of the sales of saline lands to the agricultural colleges.

It is a very difficult problem to find the returns of the sales of these lands separate from others, and much more difficult to separate the respective amounts set apart for higher and common school education. Yet it was thought best to give brief mention of these grants to bring before us the opportunities furnished the States for the support of public education.

GRANTS FOR INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT.

It was enacted by Congress” in 1841 that each of the eight following States should receive five hundred thousand acres of land for the purpose of internal improvement; for the purpose of constructing “roads, railways, bridges, canals, water courses,” and for the draining of Swamps. This act subsequently was made to embrace all of the new States admitted, with the exceptions of West Virginia and Texas. These lands were not to be sold for less than one dollar and twentyfive cents per acre. By special stipulations in accepting this grant, seven of the States more recently admitted” have reserved the proceeds of the sales of these lands for the benefit of free schools. The number of acres thus grapted is nine million five hundred thousand; three million five hundred thousand of which have been set apart for public education. This of course passes into the school fund, and has not been drawn upon for the support of universities.

The General Government has also expended large sums for the benefit of colored schools, for libraries and publications, and for scientific investigations and explorations. So far as they pertain to the subject of higher education, they will be discussed under separate headings.

! Report of the Commissioner, 1876, National Education, 16.
*United States Statutes at Large, W, 455. -
*California, Nevada, Iowa, Kansas, Oregon, Wisconsin, and Colorado.

WEST POINT MILITARY ACADEMY. 55
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

The Federal Government has appropriated lands and money for the benefit of educational institutions within the District of Columbia. The first instance to be mentioned is that of the appropriation of lands in the city of Washington, valued at twenty-five thousand dollars, to the Georgetown College in 1833. The lands were not received by the college until 1837. They have greatly increased in value since the time of the donation. In 1836 Congress gave the same amount of land in the city of Washington to the Columbian University. The lands were to be sold and the proceeds (twenty-five thousand dollars) invested in permanent securities and the interest to be used to pay the professors in college." This is the extent of the aid rendered these two institutions by Congress.

Howard University has also received assistance from the Federal Government. The appropriations to this institution for support during the last four years were as follows: 1885, eighteen thousand five hun dred dollars; 1886,” nineteen thousand dollars; 1887, twenty-five thousand five hundred dollars; 1888, eighteen thousand five hundred dollars.

WEST POINT MILITARY ACADEMY.
EDUCATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE.

It may be questioned whether a military academy should be properly classified with those schools commonly known as institutions of superior instruction, or whether it should stand alone as a special school, having no bearing upon the subject of higher learning. Viewed from a political standpoint it is only a means of national defence, and this is the great aim of the military school. Yet the national military school, as well as those of the several States, in their practical operation send out yearly scores of educated men who find their way into the various civil pursuits in times of peace, and as engineers of roads or mines, as officers, scholars, and statesmen, form a valuable portion of the community. Leaving out the idea of making armies, the discipline of the military school is the best possible education for a large percentage of our youth, and as for the questions of national defence and national safety the statesmen of the Republic must ever consider these the essential ideas of all state education.

The Military Academy contributes indirectly to science and learning by furnishing officers and engineers to surveying and exploring par. ties; it contributes directly to the general welfare and improvement of the people by furnishing competent superintendents of public works. Says Adams: “It is the idea of strengthening the country by internal

* U. S. Statutes at Large, IV, 603. * Ibid., W., 214.

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