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MARCH 25, 1830.]

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[H. of R.

is no necessity which demands at our hands the applica- man, if I did not believe that a remedy is within his reach; cation of the public funds for purposes of this kind. Nei- that is, to give up his exploded canal system, and embrace ther the “common defence,” nor the “general welfare," the railroad plan; and a most happy opportunity now demands it. And if the security of either of the points, awaits him. Let him unite the interest of the company to which this road is contemplated to be constructed, did over which he now presicles, with that of the Baltimore demand the exercise of those powers, and the application and Ohio Railroad Company, and, by a unity of action of our treasure, I ask in the name of common sense, sir, and community of feeling, they will find their interests if this road, a mere paltry earthen way, would afford the mutually advanced, and the most happy results growing security desired?

out of the arrangement. I hope I shall be pardoned for But, four general considerations have been urged in this digression. But let me ask the honorable chairman support of the bill, and they may truly be said to be most who introduced this bill, [Mr. HEMPAILL) how he can re. pliant considerations; for they are brought to bear upon concile it to his vast notions of grand and magnificent inall subjects of internal improvement, requiring the public ternal improvements, and the resources and capacity of lands or the public money.

this Government to prosecute them, to an indefinite exIt shall be my object to show that not one of those tent, as he set forth in his speech? But what is more, how considerations requires that this road should be made. I can he reconcile it to himself, to fall so far behind the shall take them up in the order in which I find them in advance of the age in improvements, as to propose an the report of the engineers made to this House at the “ earthen” road as a means to facilitate commerce, and first session of the nineteenth Congress. And the first promote the “common defence and the general welfare!" in order is its commercial advantage.

Now, if the gentleman had proposed a plan for the conIt has been gravely maintained that this road is all im- struction of a railroad, on some plan commensurate with portant as a line of intercommunication between distant the greatness and resources of this nation, there would points for the facilities of commercial intercourse, and have been some plausibility in his arguments.. But, upon the transportation of produce and merchandise. Now, what have we heard his beautiful theories and high wrought sir, admitting the constitutionality and the propriety of figures exhausted? Why, upon an earthen road--a road making roads for commercial purposes, is there any one of mud, liable to be washed' by every shower, and subwho seriously believes that this, or any other road, can ject to the vicissitudes and casualties incident to every possibly be brought to compete, successfully, with the season. mighty father of rivers, and its tributary streams? What, Before I take leave of this branch of the subject, I ask sir! change the channel of produce from the finest rivers leave to read a brief passage from the report of the enin the world, with the powerful agency of steam, propcl- gineers; we shall then be able to judge of their views as ling boats hundreds of miles in the twenty-four hours, to the commercial importance of this road. with a mere “earthen” road! When the mighty Mis- I read from the report of the engineers, which may

be souri shall turn her current back upon her source, and found in the 9th volume of Executive papers, session of force a passage through the Rocky Mountains, and empty 1825-1826, document 156, page 22.

« In relation to ex. her vast tribute of waters into the Pacific, and the beau- ternal commerce,” say the engineers, “it appears to us tiful Ohio shall be brought through the tunnel proposed that a road from Washington city to New Orleans will not to be cut by the gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. Marcen) afford, as to transportation, advantages of national import. and pour her waters into the Chesapeake, then, and not ance; for the road will cross generally all the main watertill then, let the gentleman propose the construction of courses perpendicular to the coast; and in the directions roads through that region of country for commercial and by means of which all the transportations are effective purposes.

which relate to operations of external commerce." But what kind of road have we proposed to us by this “However, we have remarked in the foregoing part of bill? “ An earthen road,” sir. Yes, sir, a miserable, pal- this report, that the main watercourses were crossed by try, earthen road. The honorable chairman and his com- the eastern route at the head of sloop navigation, and by mittee have not only fallen far in the rear of the march the middle route at the head of boat navigation, therefore of science and the arts in road making, but they have a road in the direction of either will accommodate the disgone entirely back to olden times. Earthen roads were tricts through which it passes, for the transportation of the first system of intercommunication known to man. their products to the navigable streams. Under this local They were superseded by turnpikes, as they are called, (mark the words, gentlemen, local, not general) point of which consisted in the application of stone, gravel, and view, the external commerce will become benefited to a other materials, which improved the foundation, and made certain extent,” &c. it capable of bearing greater weight. Mr. McAdam has Thus we see that, in the view of the engineers, this road improved upon those roads, by a peculiar and regular would not ensure benefits general in their character, but method of preparing and applying the stone; and from such as are merely local; and even that, no further than to his celebrity in his improvements, has arisen the name of afford districts through which it may pass the advantage McAdamized roads.

of transporting their produce to the navigable streams. But, above all, is that highest effort of the human intel- This being the case, is there any one who will press the lect, in perfecting a system of road intercommunication, application of the national treasure (which should never which, for ease, safety, and expedition, challenges the be disbursed only with a view to national objects, wherein astonishment and admiration of the world.

all the parts are equally benefited) to purposes local in That system which has outstripped canals, and ruined their character, and that to a limited extent. It would be their stocks in England; and that system which will su- merging the “general welfare" into local welfare, and, persede canals here, as well as all other systems of the against all principle, the greater into the lesser. kind, which have been devised by human ingenuity-yes, Next in order are “political considerations.” I shall be sir, the honorable gentleman from Virginia (Mr. Mercer] brief upon this branch of the subject, as there is only one must hear the appalling, the heart-rending fact, that this prominent consideration, in a political point of view, which mighty monument, (Chesapeake and Ohio Canal,) which, can be urged, which is, that roads and canals will operate for years, he has been laboring with a zeal and exertion to las bonds of union, and more strongly cement us together, erect to his memory, and which, no doubt, he had fondly and prevent a falling off of the parts. Without stopping hoped would transmit his name down to the latest posteri- to controvert the correctness of the position, it certainly ty, must fall, and must give place to the superior improve- 'presupposes one of two things: either that there is a disment of railroads.

I could sympathise with that gentle. position in the States to fly off from the centre, or a re

H. of R.)

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[MARCH 25, 1830.

pulsive action at the centre to throw them off, and hence So far from New Orleans being in an exposed situation, the necessity of these additional bonds of union.

I do say, and I say it without the fear of contradiction, that Nothing, in my opinion, is to be apprehended from the it is the most strongly fortified place in the nation. Every former; would to God I could say so much for the latter? pass leading from the Gulf of Mexico to the city, is well If ever the calamities of disunion should be experienced secured by the best and most costly fortifications. There by this nation, the causes, proximate and remote, will be are no less than five forts (I believe I am not mistaken in traced to the action of the Federal Government.

the number; if I am, the gentleman from Louisiana (Mr. The mismanagement of this central machinery, so beau- WHITE] will correct me) erected for the security of that tiful in its conception, and so perfect in its structure, and city against maritime or other invasion from the Gulf. which worked so harmoniously whilst kept within the le. These forts are capable of mounting some hundred pieces gitimate sphere prescribed by those rules expressly laid of ordnance, at least enough to sink any fleet that would down for the government of its action, will alone produce ever attempt a passage up the Mississippi to the city. We those fatal consequences. By overleaping here the con- have already expended near two millions of dollars in destitutional boundaries so clearly defined, by throwing the fending the territory of Louisiana by permanent fortificawhole machinery out of gear, and giving a looseness to tions, and estimates are now before us for a continuation our operations, propelled on by the force of combined in. of those works. terests, composing a majority, against a minority, the latter The following is a statement of those expenditures, powill be compelled to take refuge under the old relation litely furnished at my request by a gentleman of the Enin which the States stood to each other; that of separate, gineer Department. (Mr. C. then read the following distinct, and independent sovereignty. The States them- letter:) selves will cling to the Union whilst there is a hope left to “ To the Hon. S. P. CARSON, rest on; the oppressions of this Federal Government can

House of Representatives: alone drive them off.

DEAR Sır: The following statement will show you pretPerhaps if there were ever a crisis in the affairs of our Government which required additional bonds to hold us

ty nearly the cost of defending the territory of Louisiana together, that crisis is now at hand. But if this road is to

by permanent fortifications, viz. be the remedy, the committee have certainly mistaken its

Fort Wood, at the Chef Menteur proper location. Western Virginia and Eastern Tennes

Pass,

$ 411,673 11 see are not about to fly off from the Union, and therefore

Fort Pike, at the Rigolets Pass,

359,393 14 do not require this work; if danger is to be apprehended,

Fort Jackson, Plaquemine Bend,

624,064 53 it is from another quarter. The South is the point to which

Battery at Bayou Bienvenue,

96,447 80 we should direct our attention. Certainly every political

Tower at Bayou Dupre,

16,677 41 consideration would direct us to the metropolitan route. We must encircle South Carolina with some band, or she,

Amount appropriated,

1,508,255 99 from report, will be off at'a “ tangent,” and that suddenly.

Add for a fort on Grand Terre, But let me seriously ask of every member of this commit

Barrataria, estimated at

264,517 52 tee, what stronger bonds of union do freemen need, or the

For a fort, in place of Fort St. States require, than those forged out, wrought, and put

Philip, at Plaquemine Bend, esin order by the master workmen of the revolution? Link

timated at

77,810 79 connecting link, forming a chain of Government more beautiful in its principles, and beneficial in its results,

$ 1,850,584 30" (whilst acting within the limits of the original design,) than The estimate for one of those works, (Fort Jackson,) any ever devised by the wisdom of man. What was this for the present year, is eighty-five thousand dollars. Thus design? It was, that all the parts should share in equal we see, sir, that the attention of the Government has been proportion the benefits or injuries resulting from the com- directed to the defence and protection of that point, and pact; a perfect reciprocity was to be observed and preserv- that the fact, as stated by the honorable chairman who ined. Under a strict observance of those sacred principles, troduced this bill, with regard to the “exposed situation” sir, what have we to fear? I answer nothing, either from of that city, does not exist. Now, as regards the necessity external or internal causes. If fears are to be entertained, of this road for the transportation of troops and munitions they are upon the other side of the question; and let me of war, I here take upon myself the responsibility of prohere admonish gentlemen who are seeking to provide ad- nouncing, although in contradiction to the position of the ditional bonds of union, by cutting canals and constructing gentleman who introduced the bill, [Mr. HEMPHILL) that roads, to beware lest they by their operations cut the liga- no such necessity exists; and I further say, that it would ments of the constitution which now binds us together, and not only be idle, but the extreme of folly, to expend mowhich forms the only sure and certain ties by which we can ney upon this road with a view to military advantages. remain united. No political consideration, therefore, in my What say gentlemen who urge this branch of the opinion, does require the construction of this road; but, on subject? Why, “that New Orleans must always look to the contrary, eminently demands the rejection of the bill. Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, &c. for men and provisions

“Military considerations” are the next in order, and to to protect and feed them in time of war." Well, I grant which I shall ask the attention of the committee.

this; but what further do they urge? Why, “ that this The honorable chairman (Mr. HEMPHILL) set out by tell- road must be made to transport these troops and provi. ing us that the two points to which this road is contem- sions upon.” Now can it be possible that any man, in his plated to be run, are dangerously situated, and eminently sober senses, and under the influence of reason, can, for exposed in case of invasion, &c., and that this is important one moment, entertain the belief that, if this road were as a military road for the transportation of troops and mu- made, even one soldier or solitary barrel of provisions, nitions of war. With regard to the exposed situation of from Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, or any other State north New Orleans, I beg leave to differ entirely with the honor of those, would travel over it? What! bring men from the able chairman. As to Buffalo, I know but very little about State of Ohio across the States of Kentucky and Tennesit, nor have I sought to know, because I looked upon that see? Aye, and across the Ohio river, too, with its current end of the road as having been tacked on by the commit- teeming with steamboats, ready to waft the soldiers and tee, mearly as a means of buying up votes, and not that provisions to the point of destination. But no, they must the necessity of the nation required the work. I shall irudge through the muds of Kentucky and Tennessee, by leave that end, therefore, in the hands of others. marches of from ten to fifteen miles per day, till they in

MARCH 25, 1830.]

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[H. of R.

tersect this road (after crossing navigable and inviting by roads, for they might lead to defeat as well as victory. rivers) at Florence, Alabama; and then they will have the And here let me remark that those facilities to military peculiar advantage of travelling this superb 'national earth-operations are always occupied by the strongest; and such en road from thence to New Orleans.

a work might prove a curse, instead of a blessing, (as was I invite gentlemen who think despatch and saving of proven, said a gentleman standing near Mr. Carson (Mr. time important in military operations, to calculate how Davis, of South Carolina) upon the Bladensburg course long it would take troops to get to New Orleans by this last war.) Yes, (resumed Mr. C.] but I would rather lose "national road” from Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, &c., the argument afforded by the mention of that disagreeaand compare it with the ease, convenience, and despatch, ble subject, than wound the pride of the House by recallafforded by steam power on the navigable rivers which ing their recollection to it. pass through those States and empty into the Mississippi. The “transportation of the mail" is the next and last It cannot be denied that troops from any part of Kentucky consideration to which I shall ask the attention of the comof Ohio could get to New Orleans by steamboat convey- mittee. ance before they could reach Florence, in Alabama, the I feel that my strength is failing me too much to go into point of intersection with this road. Under this view of this branch of the subject to the extent I had desired. I the case, the positions laid down by the honorable chair. will lay it down as my opinion, however, that the framers man, (Mr. HEMPHILL) with regard to the “exposed con- of the constitution did not intend, by the words " establish dition” of New Orleans, and the necessity of this road as post offices and post roads,” to confer the power to conaffording means of defence, fall to the ground, and the struct roads, &c., but only meant that Congress should dewhole superstructure of argument based upon them falls signate the roads over which the mail should be carried, also.

and the points at which it should be opened. I shall not If further arguments were necessary to show the impro- attempt an argument, sir, to prove the correctness of this priety, nay, the excessive folly, of making this road for construction, but it being mine, it is sufficient to govern me. military purposes, they woull be found by a recurrence The first inquiry which suggests itself with regard to to the history of our last war, particularly in the opera- the expediency of constructing this road for the transporttions in the southern section of the Union. There was a ation of the mail, is, does any necessity for impediment time when New Orleans was 'dangerously situated and exist to the transportation of the mail, which requires the eminently exposed;" there was a time, sir, when that city application of this sum of money to remove or remedy? was invaded by a powerful and well disciplined army; an Has the Post Office Department complained of a want army, too, stimulated to action by the “booty and beauty" of facilities in this particular, and asked the construction which were promised them. This was a case of great of a road at our hands? Or have they even suggested the emergency--this was a time of deep and dreadful anxiety; propriety of the appropriation of any sum of money for but sufficient for the occasion were the spirits convened, purposes of the kind? and hastily convened, for the defence of the city. Yes, They have not; but, upon the contrary, we are informed an army was convened, defeated the enemy, and saved by the very able report of the distinguished gentleman who New Orleans. What military road, made at vast expense presides over that department, that the facilities are now of time and treasure, were those troops transported over? ample, and will be increased as the means of the departNone; yet they got to New Orleans, fought the battles of ment will justify, or the public interest shall require. I their country, and got home again; and thus will it be ever; ask the attention of the committee while I read part of that this country will always find security in the strong arm of report, which treats of the very subject now under conher "citizen soldiers.” Dangers may stand thick around sideration. them; they only stimulate to exertion. The noblest deeds [Mr. C. read the following extract from the report of are done upon the most dangerous emergencies, and the the Postmaster General:] glory of achieving them is the strongestincentive to action.

" The mail communication between New Orleans and Need I say more? Does the history of all ages that have the seat of the General Government, by way of Mobile gune before us, present a solitary example of a nation, at and Montgomery, in Alabama, and Augusta, in Georgiapeace with the world, and whose policy it is to cultivate will, from the commencement of the ensuing year, be efand maintain those pacific relations, preparing for the fected three times a week, affording comfortable convey, transportation of troops by large expenditures of public ances for travellers, and the whole trip performed in the money for the construction of roads in this time of pro- period of two weeks, each way, through the capitals of found peace? But, on the contrary, does not all history Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. prove that the first generals the world has produced, asked “Lines of four-horse post coaches will also be establishnot roads over which to transport troops for the advance-ed, from the first day of January next, to run three times ment of their military operations? Let me ask, what engi- a week, both ways, between Nashville and Memphis, in neers designated the route, or what nation appropriated the Tennessee. This improvement was deemed important to funds, to construct a passage over the Alps for Hannibal keep a regular and certain intercourse between the West. and his Carthaginians, when he pushed his conquests to ern States and New Orleans--Memphis being a point on the very walls of Rome? Or who directed Cæsar to the point the Mississippi to which steamboats can come at all seasons at which to pass the Rubicon, when he pronounced that of the year; it being contemplated to extend this line to “the die was cast," and struck the fatal blow at the liber- New Orleans by steamboats, so soon as the means of the ties of his country?

department will justify, and the public interest shall re. But to come down to the present time—to things which quire it. To give greater utility to this improvement, a transpired but yesterday, on the other side of the water. weekly line of coaches will also be established at the same Did Nicholas tax his subjects to raise a revenue to open time from Florence, in Alabama, (where it will connect those passes through the Balkan, over which Diebitsch led with the line from Huntsville,) to Bolivar, in Tennessee, at that army which shook the Ottoman empire to its centre? which point it will form a junction with the line from Nashand which, had they not been stopped by pacific measures, ville to Memphis.” and, I might add, by the interposition of other European Now, what more can be required? Does not this report powers, jealous of the rising greatness and resources of also prove that steam navigation will supersede roads for all the Russian empire, the christian flag would this day have purposes, wherever it can find water for the boats to run been waving on the walls of Constantinople? It is by the on?" The despatch and quickness of steamboat passage energy of powerful minds and capable commanders, that from Memphis to New Orleans has drawn the attention of armies are led to victory and glorious achievements; not the Postmaster General to that point; and it is already

H. of R.]

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[March 25, 1830.

viewed as the route which can be travelled with most ex- Virginia, the population of which is 1,065,336 pedition, because of the advantages of steam power. Does North Carolina, do.

638,829 not this speak volumes against the expenditure of public South Carolina, do.

502,741 money upon roads, when it must be manifest that they Georgia,

do.

340,989 never would be travelled for the purposes pretended here Alabama,

do.

127,901 as the strong reasons for constructing them? It may be possible that, with regard to despatch and saving of time,

Making

2,675,796 a direct road from this place to the Mississippi river, thence The States directly accommodated by the western by steamboats to New Orleans, would be the best. But, route, will be taking this as granted, it does not prove the necessity of Virginia,

1,065,336 our constructing a road for the purpose. Roads are al- Tennessee,

422,813 ready made. The mail is now transported from this to Alabama,

127,901 Nashville, Tennessee, seven times a week, in post coaches, at a cost of upwards of thirty-four thousand dollars per an.

Making

1,616,050" mum; and this line, sir, as we see from the report just read, This shows a difference in favor of the direct route, of is to be continued three times a week to Memphis, and one million fifty nine thousand seven hundred and forty-six from thence to New Orleans by steamboats. What more of a population to be accommodated by this road. is wanting? or what more, in modesty, can be asked? (Here Mr. Blair, of Tennessee, requested Mr. C. to

I shall now turn my attention to the relative merits of read further from the report, with regard to the States the different routes; and, if this road is to be made, I think that would be indirectly as well as directly accommodated.] I can show the propriety of selecting the most direct, prac- Mr. C. resumed. I am requested by my honorable ticable route.

friend from Tennessee, (Mr. B.) I say my friend, sir, For all purposes, connected with the transportation of because I know him to be so, to read further from this rethe mail, the saving of time, cost of construction, distance, port. I will do so, and I assure my friend that due defer&c., the most “ direct, practicable route," as proposed by ence shall be paid to his route, (western route.) the amendment, I had the honor to lay upon your table “But (say the engineers) if we add Kentucky and Georsome days since, and which was printed by order of the gia, which will be indirectly accommodated by the western House, and which I shall offer to the committee before I route, we shall have for the population accommodated, take my seat, is certainly the preferable one.

both directly and indirectly, by this route, I lay down, then, as incontrovertible facts, that the Virginia,

1,065,336 route I propose will be better, the cost of construction less, Tennessee,

422,813 the distance less, and the number of inhabitants accommo- Alabama,

127,901 dated much greater.

Kentucky,

564,317 Now, if I establish these positions, what member can re- Georgia,

340,989 fuse to vote for the amendment, whether he be for or against the bill?

Total

2,521,386" The gentleman from Tennessee (Mr. Isacks] has Now, even with the addition of the population of the clearly established the correctness of my three first posi- State of Kentucky, which they say is to be indirectly actions, (as to the goodness, cost, and distance,) and the en- commodated, there is a balance still in favor of the direct gineers who made the reconnoissance of the different routes route, of a population directly accommodated, of one have proven the fourth, (the number of inhabitants to be hundred and fifty-four thousand four hundred and forty: accommodated.) The gentleman from Tennessee, (Mr. But why does my friend from Tennessee (Mr. Blain) ISACKS) said (and I truly thank him for the argument) press this indirect consideration upon the House? Does that on the east of the mountains we had a fine level sur- he not know, sir, that Kentucky cannot be benefited, face; that nature, in her works, had been kind to us; we either directly or indirectly, by this road? And does he had nothing to do but throw up a little sand, and we had not further know that the State of Kentucky would never fine roads, &c. With him, [he said? and his constituents, have been mentioned, if it had not been to effect political and the people along the route selected, it was very dif. results, favorable to the men in power when this report ferent; they had mountains and limestone to contend with, was made? Does my friend recollect who was Secretary and natural obstructions, which required the hand of art of State at that time and the exertions made to continue to alter, and render them in a condition for the use and ad. his influence and control over the State of Kentucky? vantage of the country, &c. &c., and therefore the west- Was not every branch of the "American system" brougiit ern route was the proper one. In answer to this argu. to bear upon her, and particularly this branch of internal ment, I have nothing to offer; the gentleman has granted improvement? all I ask--nay, more, sir, I did not intend to disparage his Those were the causes which produced this report, or route, by portraying the lofty mountains and the quanti. the name of Kentucky would never have been mentionties of limestone, which it would cost millions to make a cd. But the times were dangerous, the “ line of safe preroad over, but only meant to urge, what cannot be denied, cedent” was threatened, and every nerve was exerted to that the direct route is unquestionably the nearest; that arrest the blow; but all, all would not do; the line was the east side of the mountains afforded abundant materials broken, and it is matter of deep surprise to see those who for the construction of a road; that the surface was better, gave their aid in producing the result, now using the same and the graduation more easy, than on the west side of Himsy, futile, and disingenuous arguments which were the mountains; and that the cost of construction would be resorted to by those persons, with a hope of continuing much less. The engineers support me in these positions; their power, merely to effect sectional objects, or with a and what they have faileıl to do, has been abundantly sup. view of producing benefits to themselves and their conplied by the gentleman from Tennessee, (Mr. Isacks.) stituents. With regard to the population, sir, to be accommodated by The gentleman from Tennessee (Mr. BLAIR) also said this road, I beg leave to read from the report of the engi that nothing had ever been done to advance the interests neers, (the same as before recited,) page 22:

of his constituents, or his State, by this Government. The “Leaving out the States (say the engineers) of Louisiana gentleman has surely forgotten that four hundred thousand and Mississippi, and the District of Columbia, the States acres of land in Alabama, equal to six hundred thousand accommodated directly by the eastern and middle (or di- dollars, were appropriated by this Government for the rect, as I propose) route will be (census of 1820)-- opening of a canal round the Muscle shoals, on the Ten

MARCH 25, 1830.)

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[11. of R.

nessee river; and that the completion of that work would ceeded in my feeble effort, I must leave to be decided by admit steam navigation into East Tennessee. One steam- those who have been so indulgent as to fayor me with a boat has already been (as I am informed) so high up the hearing; Holston as a place called the Boat Yard, which is the dis- But, above all the reasons which have been urged against trict of my honorable friend, (Mr. BLAIR.)

the expenditure of public money at this time, is there not [Mr. B. here corrected Mr. C. and said the boat bad yet another, which should sink deep upon the minds of the only ascended as high as Knoxville.]

friends and supporters of our present illustrious Chief MaI thank the gentleman for the correction. Lhad mistak- gistrate? Does he not stand pledged to this nation to pay off en the point, but it does not weaken the argument; for the public debt, and to exhibit the proud and sublime specthe streams leading from the district represented by that tacle to the world, of a nation out of debt; which, indeed, gentleman to Knoxville are navigable, and boats are daily sir, would be something new under the sun"--and was passing them. I heard a fact stated the other day, by a he not pledged by his friends, in anticipation, to effect this highly intelligent gentleman who resides near Abingdon, desirable, this important object? What said they, sir? Virginia, while conversing with the Vice President and Why, elect the plain, old republican, Andrew Jackson; some other gentlemen, " that he had started at one time he will bring "order out of chaos;" he will restore reforty boats, cach containing one hundred barrels of salt, publican simplicity, will pay off the national debt, and rc. from a point on the north fork of the Holston river, fifteen lieve us from the necessities of high tariffs, &c. And miles above Abingrion, which salt was probably to supply what are those very men doing, who were foremost in exNorth Alabama, and part of Tennessee. I mention this citing those expectations, and pledging him for those refact, as an answer to that part of the argument of the gen- sults? Why, sir, we now see them willing, nay, urgent, lleman from Tennessce, which related to the transporta- to squander millions of money, because perchance their tion of salt from the salt wells in Virginia. Certainly, if immediate districts may receive some little benefit. In my this road were made, no one would think of transporting opinion, if ever there was a man anxiously desirous to fulfil salt by wagons, incurring the expense of teams, &c. which the just expectations of his friends, and to advance the could not haul more than ten barrels at most, when they general interest of this nation, Andrew Jackson is that man. could send one hundred barrels by one boat. But why But, if we go on in the manner we have started, how can talk of those considerations which are merely sectional in he discharge those obligations, and meet the expectations their character? They should have no bearing in this case, of the American people? if, indeed, the work is national. But, who will say, after Is not every dollar which we appropriate beyond the witnessing the whole proceeding of the committee which current expenses of the year, so much of the money which introduced this bill, that national considerations were the would otherwise go to the payment of the debt of the causes which induced them to report this bill, and to make nation? If we appropriate these two millions and a quarthe selection they have done for the location of the road? ter, where will the surplus be, or where any money, ex

National considerations have nothing to do with it; it is cept the sinking fund,' to apply to the payment of our the offspring of a combination, based upon local consider- public debt? Nay, the sinking fund, also, is to be broken ations, for the accommodation of gentlemen who compose in upon; that sacred guaranty, pledged to the creditpart of the committee, and through whose districts this ors of the nation, must be taken also, and distributed road is to run; and the location fixed on was for their ac- among the States for purposes of education. [Here Mr. commodation, not for the nation. Yet we are called on Isacks said he was not aware of any such intention on now to appropriate millions of the public money (two mil- the part of any one.] Mr. C. resumed: I allude to the lion two hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars is the resolution passed by this House, instructing a committee sum wanted for the present) to promote the interests of to bring in a bill for the distribution of the nett proceeds certain sections of the country, and to subserve the views of the sale of public lands among the States for purposes of combined interests upon this floor. I say combined; of education; and those lands were solemnly pledged by and, if any have doubted the fact before, has not the intro- this Government to its creditors, and belong to the sinking duction of this bill, for a lateral route, leading from fund, and should not be touched till every farthing of the "Zanesville, Ohio, to pass through Lexington, Kentucky, obligation is discharged. Nashville, Tennessee, and to intersect this road at Florence, [Mr. ISACKS said he did not vote for the resolution.] Alabama," put the seal upon the arrangement, and develop- Nor did I charge the gentleman. I only speak of what ed the matter, in bold relief, before every eye not blinded is going on, and the effect it will have upon the adminisby interest or other motive?

tration; and I must further tell the gentlemen from TenBut look who compose the committee who produced nessee (Messrs. Blair and Isacks) that if they desired these bills. See the States they are from, and the sections (which I know they do not) to ruin and blast forever the of States they represent;" then couple the routes and cir-ħard-earned fame of that best of men, who, upon all occumstances together, and tell me if there is room left to casions, has proven his disinterested devotion to his counentertain a doubt as to the causes which have produced try and to his friends, they could not have fallen upon the effect. I will push this subject of combination no fur- a better plan than this, of appropriating, money, leaving ther, lest the feelings of some personal friends might not him powerless, and withoutthe means of doing that which escape unscathed. I desist, therefore, not that I fear the he stands pledged to do. contest, or doubt the results, but for the reason just men. Are they prepared to hear him exclaim, as did Cæsar, tioned.

(when he was struck by, as he thought, his best friend,) I have endeavored to show that the considerations urged and you, too, my son? Will they bind him in fetters, by the supporters of this bill did not exist, or at least did and leave him, mangled and bleeding, to the mercy of his not exist to that extent which required at our hands the political enemies, who would glory in the spectacle? If I application of the public money. How far I have suc- believed them prepared for this, the line of separation

should be eternally drawn between them and me. The cour mientes en Internal improvements is composed of Messes: ported the election of General Jackson, because I believed wird 5000 . Kentucky, Vinton, of onio, Craig, of Virginia, bim honest and meritorious, and I shall support his aclminThis route passes directly through the districts represented by Craig, realize the expectations of his friends throughout the

istration, because now I know him to be so; and he will Leicher's part of the system. The Buffalo end passes through Penne do not prevent him. My strength has failed me; I am sylvania, the State which the honorable chairman, Mr. Hemphill, is done. I only ask leave to tender my thanks to the

by Mr.

Vol. VI.--85

I sup:

G Virginia, and Blair, of Tennessee. The lateral route from Zanes

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