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MARCH 30, 1830.]

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

(H. of R.

not.

My

29,580,315 78 stand well at home. Take from any gentleman his State Interest to 1st January, 1833,

1,774,818 94 support, and will he have influence in this Ilouse? I think

What inducement can there be to strengthen the

31,355,134 72 hands of the General Government? None that I can perDeduct, according to Secretary's esti

ceive; and these seats change occupants too often to allow Tate,

12,000,000 00 even a corrupt man to hope for any personal advantage

from so doing. Each Government, General and State,

19,355,134 72 can only perform its functions within its designated sphere. Add for interest on sum, beyond three

There may they cach long happily move, nourishing and per cent. stock, (on which no inte.

cherishing, and fostering and securing, by their light and rest should be charged for this year,

influence, the free institutions of our country! I am, init having been added at six per cent.

deed, with the honorable gentleman from Tennessee, (Mr. for the year 1832 to 1833,) say on

Polk] for the Union, and, as its devoted friend, opposed six millions fifty-eight thousand eight

to all doctrines which have the slightest tendency to make hundred and eighty-five dollars and

the most deplorable of all events familiar to us. I cannot twenty-seven cents, to January,

bring my mind to adopt the idea that a State has a right 1834,

363,533 11 to abrogate a law of this Government. It is an opinion

fraught with the worst consequences, and leading to the

19,718,667 83most lamentable issue. Are not, I ask gentlemen, our Deduct as above, according to estimate, 12,000,000 00 fortunes freighted in the same vessel? The tempest which

overwhelms one, will assuredly involve others; and, when Leaving a balance of

7,718,667 83 this gallant barque shall be stranded, if stranded it must of the public debt on the first day of January, 1834, at be, he who will have the fortune to seize a plank, by which time there will be in the treasury between three which he can reach the land, will find himself on a shore and four millions of dollars, beyond all ineffective funds not worth inhabiting. that are there, which may be placed at one million, about Mr. STANDIFER said, he hoped the committee would which sum they are; and the United States will be unin- not think he was trespassing on its patience, whilst he atdebted, except as above, owner of seven millions of United tempted, in his own way, to give his views on the importStates' Bank stock; nor will the balance be so great as I ant subject before the committee. But, sir, (said Mr. S. have made it, for all the debt (except the three per cent. you will readily account for the embarrassinent under stock) is supposed, for convenience sake, to be at six per which I labor, when I inform you that I was raised to the cent, interest, when, in reality, twelve million seven hun- plough, at a time, and under circumstances, which preventdred and three thousand ninety-eight dollars and sixty en my getting any but the most limited education. cents carry but five per cent and thirteen million seven embarrassment is increased, also, from the unfortunate hundred and sixty-six thousand seven hundred dollars and difference of opinion which prevails in the delegation from fourteen cents draw only four and one-half per cent. In- my own State, with all of whom my intercourse has been deed, die debt may be regarded as fully discharged when friendly. But, whatever may be the difficulties with which we shall have reached within seven millions of its apparent 1.ave to meet, I am determined, when I see a subject iinamount; for to that extent it was incurred by subscription der discussion which involves the best interests of my confor United States' Bank stock, which the Government still stituents, and the nation at large, to represent the views holds. Not more than twenty thousand dollars can be of that generous and enlightened people who sent me Fanted for surveys and laying out the road before the here, and with whom, when at home, every thing dear to spring of 1832, nor perhaps more than thirty thousand me is to be found. I mean to give my full support to this dollars until 1833, for it cannot be begun to be opened bill, and wish to allow my colleagues and all others the until it is all laid out, so that it may be seen what the same privilege of acting freely that I take myself. I know average cost will be; which, if it shall exceed fifteen hun- this is not the course of all the members of this House; dred dollars per mile, will prevent the President from pro- but I hope I may be allowed to suy that my two worthy ceeding. This sum will not beggar the treasury. At colleagues, (Blain and Isacks) who spoke on the saine side either of the above times, the reduction of the debt will of this question with me, and myscif, live in the mountain be such, that the sum heretofore paid for interest will go region, where we breathe liberal air. We do not set oura considerable way to bear the expenses of the road. And, selves up for little captains to kad others on; we aim at no in January, 1834, it will be paid off, with the exception of such unenviable distinction. We are perfectly willing a fraction. Any thing to be apprehended from the al- that they should think and act for themselves, and we will leged interference with the payment of the public debt is leave it to the proper tribunal to decide between us. fanciful. This bill, if it shall become a law, will not have Neither of us will hold up the constitution to shelter ourthat effect.

selves from responsibility, and save us from the people at The honorable gentleman from Tennessee [Mr. Polk) the ballot boxes. tells us that the State Governments were made for inter- I will say for the worthy gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. nal and municipal purposes, and the General Government BARBOUR) that he has, in opposing this bill, which is my for external purposes. Not so exactly. But I do not re- favorite one, acted with his tisual fairness and candor. He cur to this matter to quarrel with him about his division of has argued upon the ground of expediency alone, and I powers, but to say, with the gentleman from Virginia, give him credit for it: for who, that would be thought in(Mr. P. P. BARBOUR] that I would not take from this Go-cere, could oppose this bill on constitutional grounds, vernment one, even the smallest and most inconsiderable when it is pretty well understood here that two-thirds of of its powers. I will add, for myself, I would not bestow this House are satisfied of the existence of the power of upon it one jot of authority beyond what rightfully belongs Congress to make internal improvements? I know that to it. But it does seem to me that the fashionable doc. some of my colleagues will bear me out in saying, that, trine of jealousy of the General Government, and the c!anger on my way to Congress in 1823, i expressed myself in suggested that it will swallow up State power, is chimeri- favor of the system of internal improvements, and, after cal. Who compose this Government? 'We are ourselves taking my seat, voted under the influence of that belief; its most efficient branch. Where are all our strongest and I tell my worthy colleague (Mr. Polk] who last spoke, political attachments. In the several States, and I honor that that opinion remains unchanged by any thing that I the sentiment. What sustains us here. The belief that we heard from him in the course of his remarks.

H. of R.]

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[March 30, 1830.

This road is one of the first importance to the Govern- would his children; he gave his own horses to the sick solment in three points of view: military purposes, mail trans-diers, and took to the mud and water with the rest; but portation, and last, though not least, commercial. those who were inclined to be disobedient he forced into

Speaking of it as a military road, I must call in to my obedience. Who, sir, were these soldiers that endured all aid plain common sense, as I am not possessed of much this suffering? They were neither enlisted nor hired men; book information. My view of the United States in its they were the respectable freemen of Tennessee, many warlike preparations is, that it may be compared to the from my own district, who volunteered, and left their encampment of an army in an enemy's country, when wives and children as widows and orphans, to defend the commanded by a skilful general. That encampment is in liberties of the country. But you starved them in war a hollow square, keeping in the centre a portion of his for the want of a road to carry them provisions; you disbest troops, in order, if attacked on any side, to throw eased them by subjecting them to trudge through mud, this reserved force to the place of attack. Now, the Unit- and wade waters, for the want of a road; and now your ed States has frontiers around all the States except Ken- country's flag is floating in peace, and you are willing, if tucky and Tennessee: they are in the centre of this great you reject this bill, to let them again endure the like afficencampment, and ready to be thrown to the defence of tions. Let me tell you, this road is more needed than the line attacked. Will you, then, refuse to give them a many of your other preparations for defence. road to go upon to fight, not for their own personal safe- It has been my happy lot to live among the mountain ty, but that of their country! They are safe if you leave boys, as they are sometimes called. I have been with them them to defend themselves, for their frontier and seaboard in the field of battle in one war, and I can assure you, if neighbors must be cut down to reach them: but they do the servants of the people will do their duty, and give to not wait for danger to themselves--they volunteer, and us roads so that we can travel to the points of danger, you bare their bosoms to the bayonet of the enemy for their never will again see the smoke of an enemy's fire upon the exposed neighbors, and surely it must be important to make walls of this capitol. The people to be benefited by this them good roads.

road are in a situation to ask little from the Government, The mouth of the Mississippi is very important, and but they ask you to prepare the means of defence before may be said to be the key of the whole Western country another war may overtake you, and they, for the want of Suppose that a foreign foe should take possession of it, them, be again exposed to suffer sickness and famine. and lock up its mouth, it would strike at the interest of The utility of this road for mail purposes does not seem nine of our States and one Territory. Mobile is still more very clear to some of its opponents. The gentleman from indefensible than New Orleans, and depends upon East North Carolina (Mr. Canson) says, that upon this road to Tennessee for succor. Georgia will have to look to her Nashville we now have six mails a week, and on his but own frontier, and will not be able to assist. It is, there one, therefore there is no need for this road for mail purfore, all-important to make this road, which runs three

poses. If the gentleman means that going and returning hundred miles through Tennessee, and crosses the Tom-should each be counted, then we have six mails to that bigbee, in Alabama, below the mouth of the Black War- place; but, counting in the same way, I could make twice rior river, where steamboats run, and troops and provi- a week upon his route. The growing importance of all sions could be carried on this roor to that point, and then that new and advancing country, and its increase of popusent down to Mobile. Sir, the people of the lower country lation, renders it probable that the time is close at hand, do not raise provisions to support an army--hardly for them- when the necessity for a daily mail on that route will arise. selves; for, like all others, they raise that from which they The gentleman from Virginia [Mr. BARBOUR] admitted, can make most, and it so happens that that is cotton and as I thought all would, the importance of this road in that sugar. East Tennessee, through which this road is to run, point of view. When the cost of mail transportation is is the place from whence their supply must come, as well now looked at upon that route, can it be possible that of provisions as men; and I have tilled the lands of that there is any one who would not agree to the benefits to valley long enough to know, experimentally, that if you flow from making this road as a mere post road, and the give us the channel upon which to send the provisions, we advantages to the citizens who live upon it? But I will now can raise them.

pass to the benefit which can be felt, and properly weighThis road, if made, passes through the country which end, by the farmers of our country. I mean that of aiding was the scene of suffering during the late war. Perhaps, trade and intercourse. Take a view of this road and the from my participation in those times, I feel more on the country through which it passes: It falls into the valley of subject than I otherwise would. I cannot, whatever others Virginia, west of the mountains, and traverses that valley may do, forget the difficulties and troubles of that day, until it intersects the ridges at the head of the Roanoke, and much of it arose from the want of such a road as the thence to the head of Holston, through one of the best bill now proposes to make. I saw, on the line of this road, grazing countries in the Union, and passing through the your sick and diseased soldiers, who were fighting for whole extent of East Tennessee. For several hundred your country, wading through mud and water, whilst the miles on that way the lands are rich, and present the most measles and other diseases were fastened upon them. On inviting prospects to the farmer and grazier, but unfortu. our return from the Horse-shoe to Fort Williams, we had nately must depend upon land transportation for the means 10 carry our sick and wounded, some on horseback, and of interchange of their products with other more favored others on biers, by their brother soldiers. From Fort quarters. I said that I was a farmer, yes, a practical farJackson to Fort Williams it fell to my lot to be one of the mer, and I know how to sympathize with that class. I officers of the rear guard; our duty was to keep the men know what it is to labor throughout the summer in the before us, and leave none behind. From Hunger, sickness, burning sun, and have on hand throughout the fall and and fatigue, they kept falling back, until they far exceed- winter the product of your labor, if not spoiling on your ed the number of the guard; some had eat nothing for hand, lying uncalled for, for the want of outlets to marfour or five days, and they literally gave up to die, and ket. The farmer is the class for whom your legislation sought every opportunity to dodge the guard and hide be- should mainly provide; they till the earth and feed the hind logs and brush, and risk the savages in preference to country; yes, we who are now the great men of the nathe fatigue of travel, under the prospect of starvation. I tion, legislating in this splendid hall, were sent here by am conlident in the opinion that no man living, save the them, and they are now feeding us by the sweat of their very distinguished general who had the command, could brows. They have been oppressed and borne down in the have kept in subjection men in their condition. Ile was country from which I come, on account of the channel in kind and tender to them, and treated them as a parent which their money has heretofore been appropriated by

MARCH 30, 1830.)

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[H. of R.

this body. I do not understand gentlemen when they talk can be blinded by reasoning which tends to license the exabout the revenue being raised in the great cities or sea. penditure of their moneys for all the sea-coast projects, ports; my experience teaches me that the consumer pays and nothing for defensive means amongst them, I shall conthis revenue, and my constituents pay their proportion; fess that my colleague (Mr. Polk] is representing their and how has it gone since the establishment of the Govern- wishes, though I never shall believe it to be their interests. ment? Upon tide water. Has any thing gone to the I have but little knowledge of the constitutional law, quarter through which this road is asked to be made? No, but I can understand plain English, and the constitution not the first dollar.

reads thus: Congress shall have power “ to regulate comMy colleague (Mr. POLK] cautions us against this sys- merce with foreign nations, among the several States, and tem of internal improvements, because it is unequal and with the Indian tribes.” This means commerce carried unjust. I tell him that which has been pursued is the un-on between different States, just like commerce with foequal and unjust system; and this is the only one that our reign nations, and the same can be done for both, unless people, who live off tide water, can ever expect to be be- the modern notion shall prevail, that there is no commerce befited from. I tell my colleague that the farmers of off the tide water to regulate. Tennessee will inquire more strictly into the correctness On the plan which I have adopted, the neglected porof our votes, than our fine speeches; they will rise in their tions of our country would be improved, and life and spirit majesty, and put down those politicians who will not re- given to the husbandman. The farmer could find a ready present their interests truly; and whilst he is giving cau- market for the products of his industry, life and energy tions, he must pardon me for taking the liberty of giving would take the place of indolence and sloth; the farmer him mine, take care that he represents the class of which would then whistle after his plough, and the benefits would I have just spoken.

be felt throughout society; the cheerful wife, with her I know that most of the people in the section of coun-prattling infants, the pride and ornament of our country, try from whence I come, are aware of the importance to would join their husbands and fathers, and would prothem of connecting, by canal or railroad, the waters of nounce a blessing upon the politicians who were instruthe Tennessee with the Coosa, and in that manner gain an mental in conferring this good. important outlet for their produce, and, in my opinion, I have heard the sufferings and sorrows of our revoluthat would be of more local benefit than this road; but, sir, tionary worthies pathetically described by gentlemen on the interest of the country requires that both should be this foor, with which I have been edified and charmed; done-make good roads, open your rivers; then your far- but, sir, when I am about to get the information on that mers will be stimulated to industry; all men need some subject from the most impressive source, I will go to the thing to stimulate them, even the members on this floor--actor himself. I have heard the tale of their sufferings I do not mean, to try for places on this floor, that is already from themselves; how they marked with their bloody feet sufficiently strong; I mean to do their duty when they get the frozen earth, and endured all that could be imposed here. I confess that I have sometimes thought that some upon them to purchase for us this Government, which is of the people's servants forgot that they had masters; in certainly the best upon the earth. They enriched it for deed, I very much fear that the result of this vote will tend us with their own blood; and shall we, like drones, misimto confirm that belief. I have this measure much at heart. prove the means which have been put in our power to beSir, it comes home in its benefits to the poor and needy; nefit ourselves and posterity? Shall we skim the surface the very day-laborer is to find a place to reap the reward of this delightful country, and render it barren and waste? of his industry. I am, therefore, the more importunate. No, we would be unworthy of being called the descendI never could see the reason why improvements could be ants of ancestors so brave and noble. Let us put forth constitutionally made on tide water; and the moment you our hands and improve it, and give to its high-minded inleft it, the constitution was too narrow to cover such work. habitants all the facilities in our power, by constructing This seems to be the modern doctrine, and though it suits for them roads and canals, and improving their rivers; then some learned and wise men, it will neither suit ine nor the shall we merit the name of representatives of a free and people I represent; and I think some other gentlemen of enlightened people. Pursuing this system, you would bind this House will find, also, that those who swing the mall together the North and the South, and prevent jealousy and axe will not be so well pleased with speeches filled and distrust, which is now but too apparent. Then you with constitutional law as common sense voting, bringing would hear nothing said about States flying off from their bome to them benefits and blessings which they can feel sisters, and rebelling against the Union. All would be and realize. I trust in God that they will rise, and force bound together in bonds of harmony and peace; and when their servants so to read the constitution as to include the our posterity came into our places, they would have the neglected parts of this Union, for which we now ask this pleasing reflection that they too had cause for holding in reasonable measure.

affectionate remembrance those who had preserved, in I have not bad much experience in legislation, but I health and vigor, their beloved country. bare been here long enough to know that tide water has Mr. RICHARDSON, of Massachusetts, said, that, havbeen the spoiled child of this Government. I see on your ing given notice, some time since, that he would move an table, and on passage, bills to open mouths of rivers, build amendment of the bill now before the committee, so as to sea-walls, improve harbors, and various other things, to extend the road proposed from Buffalo to Lake Champlain, which I hear no man object; but when we from the other in Vermont, and thence to Boston, in Massachusetts, he side of the ridge ask for something to be done to benefit deemed it his duty to assign his reasons for supporting the the Union at large, and our constituents in particular, then bill, provided the amendment should be adopted. the constitution adopted for the whole United States is too Without the amendment, [said Mr. R.) this bill proposes narrow to reach us, and some of our folk join in saying, if the construction of a national road from Buffalo, in the we stretch it from tide water it will tear. Indeed, it does State of New York, passing by the seat of Government, seem to me that some gentlemen think that constitution, to New Orleans. According to the estimate, it will be commerce, and every thing stops with tide water. They fifteen hundred miles in length, and will pass through Inight as well try to convince me that a goose, swimming parts of nine States of this Union. The population of in tide water, turns to a terrapin when it gets above, as the States through which it is to pass, in 1820, was about that commerce ceases to be commerce when it is put into six millions. It was my intention to show, at this time, a boat or wagon. Sir, this may be sound argument with the claims of New York and of the Eastern States to an hair-splitting politicians, but it would be laughed at by our extension of this road. But, sir, by the state of the quescommon ploughboys. If the good people of Tennessee tion I am precluded from doing this, since there has been

H. of R.]

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

(Marcu 30, 1830.

a motion to strike out the first section of the bill. I shall, To Alabama,

1,534,727 if permitted, take an opportunity, at some future time, to To Louisiana,

1,166,361 state more directly and fully my reasons for the amend- In addition to these appropriations, the ment I propose.

Government has been authorized to aid, by The question, whether the power to construct the pro- subscription, the following works: posed road is delegated to Congress by the constitution, Delaware and Chesapeake canal

300,000 appears to be waived. I understood the gentleman from Ohio and Chesapeake do.

10,000 Virginia (Mr. P. P. BARBOUR) as distinctly abandoning

Dismal Swamp

do.

150,000 the ground of unconstitutionality as the ground of his ob

Louisville and Portland do.

90,000 jections to the bill.

Cumberland road

2,230,903 (The gentleman states that he was misunderstood on this Western and Southwestern State roads 76,959 point.) The measure proposed by the bill I consider as of great

$13,838,886 importance, as it will be one of a decisive character to set. tle the long contested question, whether this Government These appropriations have been in lands at the minimum will persevere in the system of internal improvements, or price, in two and three per cent. funds and in money. No whether it will abandon this system as inexpedient. The part of this sum, it appears, has been applied to Vermont, constitutionality and policy of the system are subjects on New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, or Massa. which I have bestowed some inquiry, and some serious chusetts. A number of other States, in December, 1828, reflection. Others having declined a discussion of the had received no appropriations for similar purposes. The question of constitutionality, I will not trouble the com- appropriations for Maine and New York are mere fractions. mittee with my views of it. I will attempt to show that From what sources have the appropriations in money the measure proposed by the bill, if amended, is expedi- been derived? In 1828, the revenue accruing on the iment, because it will conduce to the general welfare of the portation of goods in the States through which it is procountry.

posed the national road shall be constructed, did not exThe proposed national road is part of a system of inter- ceed six millions of dollars. In the same year, the revenal improvements. This system has been, for many years, nue accruing on the importation of goods into New York going forward. It is now twenty-four years since this Go- and the New England States, amounted to about twentyvernment appropriated thirty thousand dollars for the con-one millions of dollars. Admit that this amount of duties struction of the Cumberland road. It is twenty-four years which is paid into the treasury is paid by the consumers, since the Government appropriated twenty-eight thousand and according to this rule the people of New York and of dollars for opening a road from the frontier of Georgia to the New England States pay a full proportion of it. Why New Orleans, and from the river Mississippi to the Ohio; should they not share an equal part in the public improveand from Nashville, in Tennessee, to Natchez, in the Mis- ments constructed by the authority of the General Governsissippi Territory. It is twenty-one years since this Go-ment? vernment appropriated twenty-five thousand dollars to ex- It is said that the people living in the Atlantic States tend the canal of Carondelet, leading from Lake Pontchar- have received their portion of the aid of Government, in train to New Orleans. It is twelve years since this Go- appropriations for the erection of light-houses, and in im. vernment appropriated, for the construction of the Cum-proving their harbors. But there are facilities for comberland road, above three hundred thousand dollars. By merce, which vastly more than repay their cost by the rewhat authority, sir, have these appropriations been made? venue they bring into the national treasury. If the AtlanThey were appropriations for neither military roads nor tic States be charged with these improvements, then they post roads, which come within what are called the spe- ought to have more credit for the duties they collect. Sir, cified powers of the constitution. No, sir, if based on in setting up a claim to the extension of this road into the any power, they were based on the specified power dele- Eastern States, I have no direct interest, as I should have gated to Congress by the eighth section of the constitu- in case it was proposed to extend it through the district I tion--the power “to pay the debts, and provide for the represent. If extended to Boston, it will come within common defence and general welfare of the United States." about ten miles of that district. If the proposed road even And now, sir, after a series of legislative acts, commenced crossed a navigable river running through Plymouth distwenty-four years since, and an expenditure of nearly four-trict, I should consider it of no trifling value. Wherever teen millions of dollars, applied without any regard to great roads cross navigable waters, or where there is waprinciples of equal distribution among the several States ter power, there is a place of business. In those places and Territories, is this system to stop? The system can- hundreds and thousands of our industrious inhabitanis are not stop here without great injustice to a number of States collected. There is a market for the produce of the far. in this Union.

There is employment for the mechanic. There the By a report made to the Senate during the present ses value of the land rises rapidly. sion of Congress, by the Secretary of the Treasury, it ap- The national road proposed by this bill, if the amendpears that, for purposes of education, and the construction ment be adopted, will do something towards equalizing of roads and canals within and leading to a number of this system. It will extend some benefits of internal imStates and Territories, from the adoption of the constitu- provement to the inhabitants of the interior of this countion to the 24th December, 1828, the following appropria-Siry, through an extent of nearly two thousand miles, betions have been made:

sides the benefits it will extend by an increased activity of To Maine,

$9,500

business and commerce, from the points on the numerous To New York,

4,156

rivers this road will cross, to the great marts of trade and To Tennessec,

954,000

commerce along our whole coast, from North to South. To Arkansas,

45,000 This plan has in it something approaching nearer the prinTo Michigan,

45,000 ciple of regard to the people of the Union, than any other To Florida,

83,417 that has appeared under the name of internal improvements. To Ohio,

2,527,404 But this system has been opposed by some of the States, To Illinois,

1,725,959 and by some of our statesmen, entitled to great respect. To Indiana,

1,513,161 The constitutionality of the power of Congress to continue To Missouri,

1,462,471 this system, I consider as virtually decided by the public To Mississippi,

600,667 voice, until the decision shall be reversed by a direct ap

mer.

Marca 30, 1830.]

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

(H. of R.

peal, either to the Supreme Court of the United States, adaptation of it to the wants, tastes, and powers of the or to the people of the United States. I hold that it is consumers were more complete than at present, there not competent for either the constituted authorities, or can be no doubt that a great increase in the value of the the people of any individual State, to decide upon this whole produce would follow." "This writer further adds, question.

that "before the introduction of good roads and canals On this great and long agitated question, the will of the in England, the prices of produce in many country districts majority of the people of the United States, through their were extremely low, compared with the same kind of prorepresentatives, has been repeatedly and most decidedly duce in the London markets. After the means of distribuexpressed. The members of this House are not represent- tion were facilitated, the price of country produce, and atives of State sovereignties, but of the people of the

Unit. of some sorts of London produce which were sent into ed States. The will of the majority in this House I con- the country in exchange for it, rose, and rose in a greater sider in no other light than as the will of the majority of degree than the country produce fell in the London marthe people of the United States. If in any department of kets; and consequently the value of the whole produce, this Gorernment, or in any sense, State sovereignties are or the supplies of London and the country together, was represented, it is in the Senate of the United States. This greatly increased; and while encouragement was thus given question of constitutional power, thep, has been repeated to the employment of a greater quantity of capital by the ly decided by majorities of the State sovereignties. When extension of demand, the temporary rise of profits, occathe will of the majority has been fairly and fully express. sioned by the extension, would greatly contribute to fured, I hold myself bound, as a supporter of the constitution, nish the additional capital.” Page 321. and by all the principles on which a republic or a demo- It must be seen, at a glance, that the natural effect of cratic form of government is predicated, to obey that will. such improvements would be the enhancement of the Any other course would seem to me to lead to anarchy, value of produce, and of all other kinds of property--an and to the most disastrous consequences. These, in my effect highly favorable to those classes engaged in callings view, are principles essential to the safety and welfare of of industry, or in trade and commerce, or to the class in this republic. Whoever may embrace or abandon them, debt. It is clearly beyond dispute, that the fall of the I shall not abandon them. Opprobrious names will not nominal value of produce, of land, and all property in trade, alienate me from them. Even if my own judgment were must be ruinous to the holders. In a young and enteragainst the proposed measure, as unconstitutional, when prising nation, this class of citizens is of course numerous. the voice of the constituted authorities of my country has A wise Government will not disregard the interests of a often, and through a succession of years, declared an op-class so important to the welfare of the whole, whether in posite judgment, would it become me pertinaciously to op- peace or war. Another writer on political economy, (Mr. pose that expression of the public will Obedience to that Say,) than whom there is no better authority on these subwill, when expressed in constitutional forms, becomes a jects, remarks thus: duty. If, against the decisions of Congress, I persever- “But although the public can scarcely be itself a sucingly oppose my own will or judgment as an inflexible ar-cessful producer, it can at any rate give a powerful stibiter, do I not plainly indicate what I would do if I had mulus to individual productive energy, by well planned, power? In what should I differ from a despot?. Can a well conducted, and well supported public works, partirepresentative of the people, consistently with his duty, cularly roads, canals, and harbors. Facility of communiby bis opposition to a system of measures, preclude them cation assists production, exactly in the same way as the from participating in the benefits of that system, to which, machinery that multiplies manufactured products abridges hy the will of the majority, they are entitled? Surely, in the labor of production. It is a means of furnishing the such case, he stands opposed to their participation in the same product at less expense, which has exactly the same general welfare. I doubt whether the people will long be effect as raising a greater product with the same expense. satisfied with a system that allows them no participation in If we take into account the immense quantity of goods its benefits.

conveyed upon the roads of a rich and populous empire, Will this proposed road conduce to the general welfare? from the commonest vegetables brought daily to market If any road or canal, or the removal of any obstructions to up to the rarest imported luxuries poured into its harbors the navigation of our rivers, be conducive to the general from every part of the globe, and thence diffused by means welfare, it will not be denied that this road will be so. of land carriage over the whole face of the territory, we

The fact has been adverted to, and is too important to shall readily perceive the inestimable economy of good roads be forgotten, that Presidents Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, in the charges of production. The saving in carriage and I believe all our Presidents with hardly an exception, amounts to the whole value the article has derived gratuihave repeatedly and earnestly recommended to Congress tously from nature, if, without good roads, it could not be the construction of roads and canals; or, in case their power had at all. Were it possible to transplant from the mounWas doubted, that measures should be adopted by Con- tain to the plain the beautiful forests that flourish and gress to procure an alteration of the constitution for that rot neglected upon the inaccessible sides of the Alps purpose. In this one point, all our Presidents, without and Pyrenees, the value of these forests would be an enexception, have agreed; that is, that a system of internal tirely new creation of value to mankind, a clear gain of improvements would be highly beneficial to this country. revenue both to the landholder and the consumer also.” If they had apprehended danger to individual States, or to P. 207-8. the Union, from such a system, would they have recom- The same author adds the following: mended it? They evidently saw no dangerous tendency “Roads and canals are costly public works, even in to consolidation. They saw no serious objection against countries where they are under judicious and economical confiding to the General Government the power to con- management. Yet, probably, in nost cases, the benefits struct internal improvements. They concurred in opinion, they afford to the community far exceed the charges. on this point, with all the ablest and most approved writers Were we to calculate what would be the charge of caron political economy. Malthus has this remark, with par- riage upon all the articles and commodities that now pass ticular reference to England: “That if all the roads and along any road in the course of a year, if the road did not canals of the country were broken up, and the means of exist, and compare it with the utmost charge, under predistributing its produce were essentially impeded, the sent circumstances, the whole difference that would apwhole value of the produce would greatly fall

. Úpon pear will be so much gain to the consumers of all those arthe same principle, if the means of distributing the pro-ticles

, and so much positive and clear nett profit to the duce of the country were still further facilitated, and if the community.” Vol. ii, p. 229.

VOL. VI.-90

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