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inconvenience was experienced. “But horrors, and aggravated by features of wben, from three, their original num- remorseless cruelty, such as never be ber, they increased to seven, the ex- fore stained the annals of the most citement towards power introduced a atrocious barbarians. spirit of party; and philosophers were The condition of the Irish, almost induced to pass the limits of their acm from the period when the English first complishments, to maintain an ill, obtained a footing in the country, was graced rivalry in the arts of political most unfavourable to improvement and intrigue. But there was another source civilization. A system of confiscation of contention: the frequent and fatal the most extensive, the most arbitrary, visitations to which the metropolis was and the most capricious, that has ever subject, in those times, from the been heard of in any age or nation, plague, made the fellows provide rendered all property insecure. The against any great or sudden diminution natives were slaves to the heads of of their number, by the appointment their respective septs, who were themof a sort of associate fellows, called selves dependent on masters almost as probationers, who were to succeed, by much removed from the character of seniority, to the vacant fellowships, as freemen. “ The Irish had always been they might occur. By this plan, there considered, not as subjects, but as were always persons of accredited quam aliens, and even as enemies, out of the lifications, to supply such losses in the protection of the law; in consequence superior ranks of the corporation, as, whereof all marriages and alliances from remaining unfilled, would be pro- with them, and even commerce, were ductive of inconvenience or delay in prohibited, and they might be oppressthe collegiate proceedings. Those pro-ed, spoiled, and killed by the English, bationers were nine in number; and, at pleasure, not being allowed to bring in course of time, not being content any action, nor any inquisition lying with expectancy, founded upon ca. for the murder of an Irishman. This sualties, began to assume the name, made it impracticable for them to and insist upon enjoying the privic exercise any commerce, or settle in leges, of a fellow; especially that im- any town; but forced them to stand portant one, of a vote in the election on their defence, to fly to the moun. of provost. In the propriety of those tains, and there live in a barbarous claims, the regular fellows could not manner, in a slavish dependence on be persuaded to acquiesce; and as the their lords, to whom they had recourse former persisted in their demands, the for protection. These lords governed college was degraded into an arena of them according to the Brehon law, in disputed rights and controverted deci- a very arbitrary, as well as oppressive sions."* The end of this was, that manner, punishing them at their plearecourse was had to the sovereign au. sure, taking coigne and livery of them, thority, and the charter was formally which made the land waste and the surrendered into the hands of the King, people idle; and by their cosherings, who, in the year 1637, granted a new sessings of the kerne, cuttings, tollages, one, accompanied by a body of statutes, and spendings, reducing the common framed by Archbishop Laud, upon the sort to a state of absolute slavery, and model of the existing codes of the to a necessity of following their chiefs Cambridge University. Dr William whenever they pleased to rebel. For Chappel was provost at this time, and they had no estates of freehold or inincurred much odium for the part heritance, nor any security of enjoywhich he acted, as well in procuring ing what belonged to them, their wives the new charter, as in his general mise as well as their goods being liable at government of the University. He was any time to be taken away at the pleaafterwards promoted to the bishoprick sure of their lords, who were, after all, of Cork, and his conduct became a sub- in as precarious a state with regard to ject of parliamentary enquiry, which their succession, as their vassals with was suspended until it was forgotten, respect to their possessions." Thus by the iroubles which almost imme- had the English sown the wind, and diately ensued, when the kingdom was is it surprising that they should have again convulsed by civil war in all its reaped the whirlwind Even the

• Carte's Life of Ormond, vol. i. p. 13.

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plantation by James, which was ins' office itself was enlarged from a tenure
tended and calculated to correct these. of seven years from the time of obtain-
abuses, was not carried into effect, ing the degree of master of arts, to an
without giving rise to great and seria, optional tenancy for life. The num-
ous complaints, and causing curses, ber of fellows was augmented to six-
not loud but deep,” to be uttered teen; the seven existing fellows being
against its projectors. The King's constituted senior, and the nine pro-
intentions were excellent, but his in- bationers junior fellows.
structions were not sufficiently precise vernment of the college was entrusted
to prevent many instances of flagrant to the former, while the duty of the
and flagitious injustice. “ Several latter consisted chiefly in preparing the
persons” (Carte, vol. i. p. 25)

students for quarterly examinations, turned out of large estates of profite Upon a vacancy occurring among the able land, and had only a small pite senior fellows, it was to be filled up tance, less than a fourth part, assign- three days after it was made known, ed them, for is barren ground. by the provost and the major part of Twenty-five proprietors, most of them the surviving senior fellows; and O'Ferrals, were dispossessed of their vacancies amongst the junior fellows, all, and nothing allotted them for com- or scholars, were to be filled up by the pensation ; and, in certain cases, the provost and the major part of the resentment of the old possessors was senior fellows on the Monday after raised the higher, because the lands the Trinity Sunday next ensuing. The taken from them were given to those power of forming statutes for the gowho had none before, and even to vernment of the university, which had some that had been rebels and traitors.” been conferred by the original charter When to these causes is added, the upon the provost and fellows, was religious hatred which had newly withdrawn, and reserved to the King ; sprung up, and which was aggravated in cases omitted to be provided for, a and inflamed by the insulting and permission being conceded to the provexatious proceedings of a puritanical vost and senior fellows to institute parliament, it will not be thought laws, wbich, if confirmed by the vi. very surprising, that a people, reduced sitors, and not repugnant to those preto barbarism, maddened and inflamed sented by the King, should remain in by injustice and cruelty, and worked force, until the board, with the conupon by the passionate representations sent of the visitors, should think proof their spiritual guides, by, whom per to rescind them. The visitorial they were iaught to believe that, by power was confined to the Chancellor, the destruction of the English, they or the Vice-Chancellor, and the Archwould be doing God a service, were bishop of Dublin. While we recognize wrought up to a pitch of frenzy, in the propriety of limiting the hands in which all the energies of their nature, which this power was lodged, and both good and bad, were absorbed which was, in fact, rendered inefficient into a kind of instinct for vengeance, from the multitude who share it, we which could alone have qualified them cannot but lament the marked incivi, for the demoniacal barbarities which lity offered to the city in the deprivathey perpetrated, and which have tion of the Lord Mayor, from whom, made the memory of that atrocious if but little assistance could be exrebellion accursed and execrable to all pected, little obstruction need be apposterity.

prehended, in the administration of Such was the country, such were collegiate justice; and whose presence the people, amongst whom the seat of would not have been more gratifying learning, checked as it was by a series to civic pride, than pleasing to every of untoward events, was proceeding friend of letters, as a testimony of the gradually towards that majestic eleva- gratitude entertained for civic liberaltion which it afterwards attained, and ity, by the founders of the University. in virtue of which it became the most Such were the principal alterations efficient instrument of national im, and modifications effected by the new provement. As the new charter essen- charter in the constitution of the coltially altered the constitution of the lege, at a time when all those who college, it deserves to be particularized. were devoted to the arts of peace, or The right of appointing the provost the pursuits of literature, were about was reserved to the crown, and the to be scattered as sheep not having a

shepherd. The provost, by whose those whom the sword bad spared.' instrumentality these changes were Nothing, however, could induce him chiefly brought about, was obliged to to desist from the public exercise of fly into England, where shortly after his functions; and he fell the lamenthe died ; but not before he had been ed victim of that dreadful distemper, exceedingly harassed by the vexatious after having, during the space of three proceedings of the Irish parliament. years, contended for what he conceived The venerable Bedell, who had been to be the truth, with a firmness that Provost of the University, and was at made his enemies respect the man, that time Bishop of Kilmore, fell into whom their power could not overawe, the hands of the rebels, "and the bare and whom the adversity of his cause barous people shewed him no small could not deter from its perilous vinkindness.” It is indeed beautiful to dication. The vacancy occasioned by behold, amidst the scenes of carnage his death gave the Parliament an opand devastation which every where portunity of appointing Samuel Winpresented themselves, the sweetness ter, chaplain to the commissioners, to and benignity of the sage, and the the important trust of presiding over calm and holy composure of the saint, the University, which, during his coneffectually mitigating and disarming tinuance in office, he modelled so as to his savage and sanguinary assailants. meet the approbation of his patrons ; Bedell was treated by the insurgents, and it, in consequence, became a school during his compulsory sojourn with of polemic controversy, instead of an them, with the most gratifying atten- institution of peaceful religion and the. tion and the most marked respect; sciences.' and when, at length, his anxiety for In 1649, Cromwell visited Ireland, the fate of his friends, and the state and the effect of his character, and his of the country, brought on the illness measures, in subduing whatever opof which he died, they flocked from posed his high pleasure, is described, all parts to his funeral, and loud and in a few words, with very great power, tumultuous were the expressions of by Mr Taylor. He says, vehement: sorrow amidst which bis So impetuous, sanguinary, and. remains were deposited in the grave. · successful were his military enterprises,

The year 1647 was memorable for that the traditionary character which the arrival of the Parliamentary com- he bears amongst the native Irish, even missioners, who were appointed to at the present day, partakes less of the settle the political differences, and to splendid fame of the able chieftain adjust religious affairs according to than of the ghastly renown of a dethe standard then deemed orthodox in stroying spirit ; and he is rememberEngland. One of their first acts was ed, not as an armed missionary of a to forbid the useof the English liturgy; civilized cause, but as a being possesse and although the clergy very generally ing a preternatural love and power of complied with their interdict, the cole destruction." lege resolutely refused to discontinue He seemed, as Grattan said of the their accustomed form of prayer ; and Earl of Charlemont,

to cast upon " Anthony Martin, who was also the crowd that followed him, the graBishop of Meath, persisted in reading cious shade of his own accomplishit, and actually preached against the ments, so that the very rabble grew innovating spirit of the times, with an civilized as it approached his person." apostolic freedom, that nothing but To Cromwell, however, is the colthe conscientious sense of what he lege indebted for the valuable accession conceived a sacred duty could have of the library of Archbishop Usher. inspired. The people, who never feel That great and good man was come so deeply the power of religion as in pelled to fly the country. His propere times of persecution, resorted thitherty was confiscated, and he himself rein great numbers, and delighted to duced to the greatest distress. He hear his fearless and impressive ex. had, like his great contemporary

Milhortations. His conduct will appear ton, fallen on “ evil days and evil the more exemplary, when it is known tongues;" and felt, probably, some rethat the plague was then consuming gret that he gave, at one period of his

" Taylor's History of the University. VOL. XXVI. NO. CLV.


life, too much countenance to the party appointed Vice Chancellor of the Uniby whom he was now proscribed. versity. The name of this venerable After his death, the Parliament, to man hallows the page on which it ape mark their sense of his merits and suf- pears, and causes the humble aspirant ferings, settled a pension of L.500 a. after Christian excellence to experiyear on his family. A new and a va- ence a mingled emotion of gratitude, luable edition of his voluminous works, humility, reverence, and love. How is, we are happy to say, at present in poor is the fame of the conqueror, the press, and will shortly make its how fading the renown of the legislaappearance, under the auspices of the tor, compared with the deep emotions present excellent and learned King's which are experienced towards him Professor of Divinity to the University, who has sacrificed all that this world Dr Elrington.

holds dear, to the still dearer priviAt the Restoration, the Puritanical lege of walking humbly with his God, fellows were ejected, and their places and who, by bis self-renouncing tensupplied chiefly from Oxford and Cam- derness of heart and “ earth-despising bridge ; the cultivation of learning has dignity of soul,” at once exemplifies ving

been so much discouraged by the and recommends the gospel ! repeated calamities which had befallen That such a man should have been, the College that few of its own mem- at such a time, appointed to such a bers were considered eligible to any station, seems little short of an interof its high places. Dr Thomas Seele, ference of Providence in behalf of the a native of Dublin, was, however, ap- University. He was a miracle of ho. pointed Provost, and discharged his liness, as well as a prodigy of learning important duties in a manner which and genius; and the whole energies fully justified the discriminatory selece of his mind and heart were immedition of those by whom he was promo ately applied to assuage the bitterness ted.

of controversy, and to repair the raIt was the good fortune of Ireland vages of war. His first sermon preachto be governed at this period by the ed before the University is thus chaillustrious Duke of Ormond. He had racterised by Bishop Heber :—"I am proved his capacity both in the arts of not acquainted with any composition peace and the conduct of war; and re- of human eloquence which is more mained true to his principles in de- deeply imbued with a spirit of practic spite of the terrors of power and the cal holiness, - which more powerfully blandishments of seduction. He was attracts the attention of men from the the friend of Clarendon, and had been subtilties of theology to the duties the companion of Charles in his exile; and charities of religion,-or which and when his royal master, for whom evinces a more lofty disdain of those he had sacrificed his all, was placed trifling subjects of dispute, which, then on the throne, favours were showered or since, have divided the Protestant upon him such as in some sort com- churches." pensated his previous losses and suf- The way,” says Taylor, to judge ferings; and, what he valued above of religion, is by doing our duty and every other consideration, enabled him, theology is rather a divine life than a once more, to employ his noble mind, divine knowledge. In heaven, indeed, and exert his various talents, in the we must first see, and then love; service of his king and for the advan- but here, on earth, we must first love, tage of the kingdom. He was, per- and love will open our eyes as well as haps, the only living individual who our hearts; and we shall then see, and could have so happily reconciled all perceive, and understand.” the conflicting interests involved in Thus it was that he endeavoured to the Irish Act of Settlement; and, by tranquillize the minils and purify the his wisdom, his decision, his promptis affections of those who had but too tude, and his authority, produced that much perplexed themselves by “fool. acquiescence in its provisions, which ish and unlearned questions that ensecured the present peace, and event- gendered strife," and too frequently, ually ensured the future prosperity, of in their contests for faith, lost sight of Ireland.

charity. By holding in view the end It was by his influence that Dr of religion, namely, holiness of life Jeremy Taylor was promoted to the and conversation, he was preserved bishoprick of Down and Connor, and from having recourse to any undue

means of arriving at it; whereas others, fill them, and be less useful there to who begin by considering the means, Church and kingdom than those who not unfrequently lose sight of the are better acquainted with both.” Such end; and thus are led to a violation was the opinion of this illustrious man of what is not only a virtue itself, but at a time when the University of Dube " the very bond of peace and of all lin was far less capable of supplying virtues.” Such was, most deplorably, the Irish Church with an efficient and the case while the Puritans were in- an educated clergy than it is at prevested with academic power. They sent. Indeed the cultivation and enseemed to think that thorns would couragement of learning, in all its produce figs, and that from a bramble branches, entered largely into his plans bush they might gather grapes : And of national improvement. With this no one assuredly was so well calcula- view, a clause was introduced into the ted to correct this fatal error as the Act of Settlement, empowering the author of “ Holy Living and Dying;” erection of another college ; and thus, neither was there any one, who was by the competition which would take more qualified by temper or pledged place between the sister institutions, by principle, to do so with moderation, each would be stimulated to exertions and a tender regard for the scruples by which both would be materially of others, than the author of the“ Lis advantaged. We fully agree with berty of Prophesying,” who, in for- Mr Taylor, that" had the plan been bearing to persecute his adversaries, carried into effect, there can be no was but exemplifying the principles doubt but it must have proved highly for which he had always contended, beneficial to the country; and aland “ doing to others as he would though the present college might not, that they should do unto him." in that case, be so very opulent as it

It was the Duke of Ormond's policy is, yet it would have a character betto confer the dignities and the bene- ter known, and, of course, more valued fices of the Irish Church, when they in the empire: the rivalry which would could be fairly so conferred, on Irish- naturally exist between the two instimen, educated in the Dublin Univere tutions, could not fail to raise the resity, as well for the better encourage- putation of both; the pride of advanment of learning in that institution as cing their respective colleges would for the general advantage of the Irish inspire the members individually with Church. “ It is fit to be remember the zeal of letters beyond what can exed,” he says, in one of his letters to ist in a solitary establislıment; the sea the Secretary of State," that near this veral professors would feel the incum. city there is a university of the foun- bent necessity of pushing their labour dation of Queen Elizabeth, principally further than the discharge of their intended for the education and advan- daily duty required; their learning tage of the natives of this kingdom, would guide them into the region of which hath produced men very emis discovery.” “The splendid indivi. nent for learning and piety, and those dual exceptions which we now see, of this nation, and such there are now would form the general rule, and the in the Church, so that, while there are literature of the country would share such, the passing them by is not only, in the prosperous fame of its Univerin some measure, a violation of the sity." original intention and institution, but Mr Taylor, however, should be ina great discouragement to the natives formed, that, for the realization of all from making themselves capable and these desirable advantages, more than fit for preferment in the Church, where the mere establishment of a second unto, if they have equal parts, they college would be required. The Uniare better able to do service than versity, as at present constituted, must strangers. The promotion, too, of the rather be considered a school for the already dignified or beneficed, will instruction of youth, than an institumake room for, and, consequently, tion for the advancement of learning. encourage young men, students in the For the one purpose it is admirably University'; which room will be lost, calculated; for the other, scarcely at and the inferior clergy much disheart- all. The Board are fully occupied ened, if, upon the vacancy of bishop- by the business of its government ; ricks, persons unknown to the king- the junior fellows, by the instrucdom and University, shall be sent to tion of their pupils ; and the scholars,

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