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not mere delusion. It is easy to as- goods, and gets back a given quantity sert that a thing is “ clear to demon- of lead ore, and the wealth of the stration,” when no attempt is made country can only be increased by to demonstrate it. We say it cannot the amount of the difference in value be demonstrated, because it is not between the ore received and the true. It is not true that if half a mil- goods sent away, minus the cost of lion of our agricultural population supporting certain lead miners who were found unnecessary, because we have become unproductive consucould get the same quantity of bread mers. By the latter, the country without their assistance, that there- first became richer by £100 worth fore the country would become rich- of goods manufactured to be exchaner in consequence of employing them ged for lead in Cumberland, then it in something else; but it is true, that became richer by the £100 worth of the result would be their total idle- lead raised to meet this demand, the ness, their unutterable distress and goods which purchased it never hamisery, and perhaps a rebellion cau- ving been sent out of the country; sed by starvation and despair. and against these two profits there is

Happily for the country the no- no drawback for the support of pautions of the Economists have not yet pers. If this be a fair statement of been carried into practice with re- the case, and really we can see no spect to the reception of foreign corn; fallacy in the view we have taken of but in the various branches of our it, it is no wonder that the country produce where they have been adopt- should be on the high road to ruin ed, the effects of a mistake precisely under the operation of the Free Trade similar to that we have just endea- system. If our demand were limited voured to expose, may be found ope- only by our power of purchasing, rating in proportion to the extent of the case would stand otherwise, and population employed in the pursuits in a few years our miners might beaffected by the adoption of the new come cutlers and calico weavers, and system. Let us take, for example, more lead ore be brought from Spain the lead trade, and compare the than the same number of labourers theory of the Free Trade advocates could possibly produce in England; with its practical effects. Let it be but our demand is limited to the granted that we can get as much quantity we have immediate use for, good washed ore from Spain for £70, and that we can purchase with the as we used to get out of the mines produce of those already employed of Northumberland or Cumberland as cutlers and calico weavers, and for £100. The Economist says, it is therefore our miners become a dead a manifest saving to the country of unprofitable weight upon the coun30 per cent on this article, and your try. mining population will be better em- All the means of wealth may exist ployed in doing something else for within a country,--an abundant and which the country possesses greater industriously disposed population, advantages. But it so happens, that powerful machinery, and an inexfor doing this “something else” the haustible store of raw material; and mining population is not wanted. It yet, if a demand cannot be excited is true, that for £70 worth of goods for the products of one class by ansent to Spain we get as much ore as other class, the wealth will not be we did for £100 worth sent into created. People will not manufacCumberland; but our miserable mi- ture goods merely to increase the ners, once a cheerful, happy, com- wealth of the nation; they must see fortable population, are all panpers a means of exchanging them for -some altogether idle, some break- something which is desirable to theming stones on the roads, and some selves; and, therefore, it is vain to working at their trade for wages so adopt a system which only increases low, that to keep them from starving the possibility of attaining national the parish is obliged to half maintain wealth, while it takes away the intheir families. In a national point of ducement to individuals to create it. view, the difference, as it appears to Suppose a manufacturer of cotton us, between the new and the old sys- gowns to give a thousand gowns in tem is just this : by the former, the the year to a hundred women in country sends away £70 worth of Woodstock for gloves; when he finds

that, by our new system of policy, tion of our exports must be a dead he can get the same quantity of gloves loss to the country, an outlay withfrom France for 700 gowns, he does out any return; and if the view we not make a present of the surplus have taken of the effect of the Free 300 gowns to the women of Wood- Trade system be correct, another stock, nor does he use more gloves large portion of the exports is a mere than he did, but he turns off some exchange; whereas, if the goods were dozen or so of the gown-makers, to disposed of in the home market, an add to the now unemployed popula- equivalent to them would be created, tion of the glove-makers, and he gets and both original and equivalent be his usual quantum of gloves from added to the wealth of the country. France in exchange for his 700 gowns. Besides, we believe that no official Thus what is called a saving is not a return from the public offices is to saving; a given quantity of some be taken without allowance. We do thing is indeed obtained for a less not mean to impute intentional dequantity of something else, but, up- ceit, when we say, which we do on the whole, production is not only without fear of contradiction, that not increased, but it is greatly dimi- these returns are more commonly nished. Such, we believe, to be the according to form than according to working of the Free Trade system; and truth. though we feel warmly enough upon There are a number of rules and the subject, we have endeavoured to technicalities the knowledge of which examine it with all the calmness and forms a key to the truth for the inicarefulness due to so very important tiated, but those who compare the a matter, upon which a great deal evidence of public returns with the purporting to be argument has been evidence of their own observation, put forth.

are apt to be incredulous. Nor is Throughout this paper we have this opinion one of novelty to some assumed that the state of the country, of those who now find it convenient with respect to trade and manufac- to express extreme horror at its hetures, is lamentably bad. We have terodoxy. So long ago as the 24th conceived ourselves justified in the of May, 1819, a gentleman, upon assumption, because of the general whom a new light had suddenly consent to the fact, and the uniform burst as to the enormous magnitude tendency of all the published accounts of the evil of a paper currency, findwhich we have read; it is therefore ing it would strengthen his argument almost needless to say any thing if he could shew that, along with the about the lists of exports which have abundance of paper money, distress been published with something of a was much more abundant, thought triumphant flourish. If the lists proye proper to indulge in the following any thing in the matter at issue, they ungenteel insinuation against the improve inferentially that trade is not maculate purity and truth of Custom bad; but to think to convince the House returns. “It is impossible,” world by inferential argument that a said the Right Hon. Gentleman,“ to thing is not, when there is direct evi- listen to the descriptions recently dence that it is, is a very idle exer- given of the situation of the labourcise of argumentative skill. “ Lord ing poor in many parts of the counPeter's” demonstration to his bro- try, and not suspect that whatever thers Jack and Martin, that a loaf of may appear by the returns from the bread was a leg of mutton, must no Custom House, there is some unlonger be considered ludicrous, if soundness in our present system. we are to take a list of exports for a It is idle, while such distress exists, grave argument that trade is brisk to talk of national prosperity.” The and prosperous, notwithstanding that gentleman who so spoke, has now half the people in trade have nothing the honour to be Secretary of State to do but walk about with their hands for the Home Department; and, in their pockets, and with, unfortu- amongst many new things which he nately, nothing else there. If the has learned since 1819, has been a account which has been lately pub- more profound deference to the aulished of the enormous revenues thority of Custom House returns. It spent abroad by British absentees would, however, in speaking on this be at all near the mark, a great por- subject, be unpardonable not to acknowledge the superior dexterity der of all the little boys, cannot make with which the game of the “ Re- their fortunes, so the Ex-Secretary, turns" is played by a Right Hon. with all his very wonderful dexteriEx-Secretary who once wrote a let- ty, cannot get back his place. Neter after midnight. His skill is only vertheless, his perseverance is surto be equalled (for nothing can sur prising, and if " frustra niti” is to be pass it) by the singular feats which his portion, it will be a “modern inconjurors display with packs of stance” in the teeth of many a “wise cards. Though the account you saw.” Perhaps he works for the look at appears to you to be dismally work's sake, feeling with the wise black, let the Ex-Secretary but shuffle man, that “ in all labour there is prohis returns, and, lo ! 'tis most unde- fit," a text to which he may be the niably a rosy red. There is but one more attached, as it is more like a thing that he cannot do with them; sentence out of a political economy if all the shipowners in England were book than any other in the whole in the Gazette, give him his pack of Bible-but let him pass. returns, and in ten minutes he'd It was our intention in this paper shew you clearly they were all very to have shewn our view of the way prosperous men, or, though you had in which our new system of policy, just walked down to the House with with regard to the currency, operates difficulty through an afflicting crowd upon the condition of the people, but of idle starving silk-weavers, give as our essay has already grown to as him once more his returns, and he'll great a length as we think convenishew you presently that the greasyent for this Number, we reserve that rogues are sleek with good living; part of our subject for next month, but as even conjurors, to the won.


Part III.

Thus far Wordsworth explains his microcosm of man ;-a purifying inown theory, of which the whole sub- fluence exerted through the medium stance seems to be the almost self- of visible objects upon the invisible evident proposition - that natural mental powers ;-a sort of anima thoughts, clothed in simple language, mundi pervading all that is ;-a sub(however lowly the subject,) speak at lime harmony between the natural once to the heart.

and moral creation. It is, in short, But the poet's disciples go beyond the quakerism of philosophy, the their master in aggrandizing his prin- transcendentalism of poetry; a someciples of composition. They “ see thing between the abstractedness of in Wordsworth more than Words- Plato, and the unction of Madame worth knew.” Conscious, perhaps, Guion. But let Wordsworth speak for that his own exposition (in prose) of himself: his theory can lay claim to verbal originality alone, and that, moreover,

“ My voice proclaims it half condemns his own practice,

How exquisitely the individual mind

(And the progressive powers perhaps no they deduce from his works them

less selves a far more sublime and mysti

Of the whole species) to the external world cal creed-the “ Revelation"-suffi.

Is fitted ;—and how exquisitely too cient, as I have before observed, in (Theme this but little heard of among the opinion of the elect, to work a

men!) moral change in any erring (but phi

The external world is fitted to the mind." losophic) individual. The Revelation, as far as I can learn, consists in Is this new ? Akenside, in his Plea a divine discovery by the poet, of the sures of Imagination, says, following arcana-namely, a certain « For as old Memnon's image, long re accordance, which imaginative minds

nown'd perceive when, shutting out the cla- By fabling Nilus, to the quivering touch mour of the world, they listen to Na- of Titan's ray, with each repulsive string ture's still small voice, between the consenting, sounded through the war. external universe, and the internal

bling air

Unbidden strains ; even so did Nature's now as when I was a child, and I hope hand

that, when I am old, I shall still be To certain species of external things equally alive to this and other beauAttune the finer organs of the mind.ties of Nature. I had rather die than But Wordsworth, moreover, insists

become insensible to them. A man upon a few items culled from other will resemble what he was when quarters. He seems to believe in cer

young; and, seeing that I was a protain native and beautiful properties mising child, I trust that I shall alof the human heart; (what the divines ways be consistent, and that feelings would say to this I know not:) he of piety, excited by natural objects, thinks that we are born in a glorious

will accompany me to my life's end.” state of wisdom and of “ heaven

Tom and of « heaven- I may boast that I have supplied a born freedom.” and that we have no hiatus in the last three lines by inthing to do but to keep ourselves serting—“ seeing that I was a promi. aloof from the “ weight of custom.” sing child," for without this clause and to carry on one smooth unbró- the reasoning is inefficient. ken stream of thought from infancy 66 The child is father of the man, to age, in order to be very perfect And I could wish my days to be," &c. creatures. He greatly reprobates the fragmental manner in which most is a non sequitur: for if childhood persons confound their identity by really contain the germ of our future running after new objects, or adopt- character, it is clear that this circuming new opinions at different periods stance must be either a blessing, or a of their lives, and in consequence curse, according as a child is amiable breaks out into the following short or otherwise ; unless, indeed, Wordsbut pithy poem :

worth means to assert that all child

ren are born with equally happy dis“ My heart leaps up, when I behold

positions; and, in this case, it would 1 A rainbow in the sky,

not be worth while to combat an opiSo was it when my life began,

nion so contrary to the conclusions So is it now I am a man, So be it when I shall grow old,

of experience. But no !-he is too Or let me die!

orthodox to disseminate such a heThe child is father of the man ;

resy. And I could wish my days to be

We will now proceed to a certain Bound each to each by natural piety." ode, entitled “ Intimations of ImmorThis is the whole of the poem, which

tality from Recollections of early I have heard many admirers of Words

Childhood,” since it is the sermon of worth extol as an almost superhu

the foregoing text, the opus magnum, man flight of intellect.. This, they

the ne plus ultra of mysterious ex

cellence; it contains and condenses say, is the text which contains the es

the grand peculiarities of “ the Resence of all his after discourses

velation.” I was once present amongst this the epitome of the Wordsworthian philosophy—this the Shibboleth

a party, consisting of many true beof the true believers. If you com

lievers in the Wordsworthian faith, prehend and feel this, you are al

of a few Neophytes, and one or two ready in the vestibule of the temple

absolute and wicked sceptics. A sin

cere and most zealous disciple offer- if you do not comprehend and feel

ed to read aloud the ode in question. this, you have come into the world to very little purpose-you are but

Reader, didst thou ever hear a Wordsa piece of animated dust. Alas for

worthian spout poetry? If not, thou me! I can indeed understand, or seem

canst scarcely frame to thyself a mode to understand, this divine little poem;

of recitation so singular. A praying but then I can perceive in it nothing

Quaker, a preaching Whitfieldian, is beyond the quaint expression of a

nothing to a spouting Wordsworthvery natural wish, often uttered both

ian. In compliance (as I suppose)

with their master's wishes, who dein poetry and prose, namely, to pre

clares that, “ in much the greatest serve unto the evening of life

..part of his poems, as a substitute for “ Immaculate the manners of the morn." the classic lyre or romantic harp, he In plain language, the meaning of the requires nothing more than an anipoem appears to be-“The sight of mated or impassioned recitation a rainbow gives me as much delight adapted to the subject;" and that the begun,

reader must not be “ deprived of a age. Perhaps you would be kind voluntary power to modulate, in sub- enough to explain it to us." The Neoordination to the sense, the music of phyte could not easily have made a the poem ;" taking a hint also, I ima- request more disagreeable, or more gine, from Wordsworth's description embarrassing, to the disciple, who of the poet's privilege to

was a man hating definition, and de“ Murmur near the running brooks lighting in the vague, the obscure, A music sweeter than their own,”

the mysterious; and of whose mind

the whole tenor was synthetical, rathey part chant, part speak, part mur

ther than analytical. Making a wry mur, part mouth (with many a rise

face, then, he foundered about in a and fall and dying cadence) all poetry, but more especially Words

vain attempt to render the poet's worth's poetry, after an unimaginable

creed intelligible, until, getting quite manner--whether in subordination

into a passion, he accused the poor

Neophyte of having interrupted his to the sense it were hard to deter

feelings in their full flow; and roundmine. No sooner had the Wordsworthian

ly declared that things so out of the common way, so sublime, and so ab

struse, could be conveyed in no lan“ There was a time when meadow, grove, guage but their own. and stream,

Here the composed sceptic very The earth, and every common sight quietly said, “ It appears to me, that To me did seem

the passage in question is nothing Apparell'd in celestial light,”

more than an assertion of that old than one of the sceptics, of laughing Platonic doctrine, the pre-existence propensities, crammed his handker- of the soul, which the poet calls 'our chief half way down his throat: the life's star,' and which he represents as other looked keen and composed; having previously set to, or, in other the disciples groaned ; and the Neo words, lost sight of, another state of phytes shook their heads in deep con- being, before it rises upon this present viction. The reciter's voice deepen- world. He also seems to favour the ed in unction as he repeated,

classical creed of a little dip in Lethe, “ The moon doth with delight

before we take upon us the fleshly Look round her when the heavens are

form, by the expression, Our birth bare,"

is but a sleep and a forgetting,' and and, unheeding the aside remark of

at the same time avers that, like the

son of Thetis, we did not undergo a the calmer sceptic that the last was

complete immersion, insomuch that rather a bare line, he proceeded without farther interruption through some

glimpses of our former and more really beautiful passages, descriptive

glorious state yet remain unto us, of that season when (as Shakspeare

more especially in childhood, as we

then are nearer to the scene of our says)“May hath puta spirit of youth in every thing," and of the regret which

original splendour, and as yet unthe mind experiences from not sym

clouded by the gross exhalations of pathizing with the general gladness

earthly cares.” The Wordsworthian as vividly as in early youth- until he

loudly protested against so common

place and (as he called it) degrading came to the following:

an exposition of the poet's doctrine, * Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting; and then went on to that part of the The soul, that rises with us, our life's star, ode, where the author declares that Hath had elsewhere its setting, he does not value the recollections of And cometh from afar ;

childhood on account of the delight, Not in entire forgetfulness,

liberty, and hope, of that happy peAnd not in utter nakedness,

riod, But trailing clouds of glory, do we come (Here the reader's voice became

“ But for those obstinate questionings very impassioned.)

Of sense and outward things, From God, who is our home;

Fallings from us, vanishings, Heaven lies about us in our infancy."

Blank misgivings of a creature

Moving about in worlds not realised." Here one of the Neophytes timidly interposed with—“I'confess that Í Here again the timid Neophyte bedo not quite comprehend that pass- sought a little enlightening. “What

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