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DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS AND PUPILS.

As the arrangement of this grammar is in some respects peculiar, it may be expedient to give a few directions as to the manner it should be studied.

There are two courses of exercises adopted, one called the first and the other the second course. The scholar, in commencing the study of grammar, should direct his attention to the sections only of the first course of the exercises. He should begin to parse etymologically, as soon as he has learned the definitions of the first part of speech. In the first course of exercises, he will see the order of parsing illustrated, and a reference, at the close of each question, is made to the section, which will enable the scholar to answer it intelligently. After he has gone through with the first course of etymological and syntactical parsing, he may then take the second course, and observe the references, as in the first course. It is best that the pupil should thoroughly commit the principles referred to in every case, so that he may have them at command when he enters upon exercises where there are no references. After having mastered the false syntax, he may perhaps profitably direct his attention to the analysis in connection with the exercises that succeed the rules of syntax. Pupils should be required, in every case, to apply the principles of grammar while parsing, till they have made them perfectly familiar. It is only by pursuing such a course, that they will become interested in this science, obtain a knowledge of the genius and power of their own language, and acquire that discipline of mind which a correct mode of studying it is pre-eminently fitted to afford.

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ENGLISH GRAMM AR,

$ 1. ENGLISH GRAMMAR teaches the principles of the English language, and the proper manner of writing and speaking it.

§ 2. It is divided into four parts; Orthography, Etymology, Syntax and Prosody.

REMARK 1. The principles of grammar are usually divided into two classes, the particular and universal. The particular principles are such as are appropriate to a particular language, and the universal, such as are common to all languages.

REM. 2. The standard of grammatical accuracy is the present reputable and general use, or the established practice of the best speakers and writers.

REM. 3. Principle in grammar is a peculiar construction of the language, sanctioned by good use.

REM. 4. A definition in grammar, consists in describing a principle in a definite form.

REM. 5. “A rule ingrammar describes the peculiar construction, or circumstantial relation of words which custom has established for our observance.”

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ORTHOGRAPHY. § 3. Orthography teaches the nature and power of letters and the proper mode of forming them into syllables and words.

QUESTIONS-FIRST COURSE.

What does Fo grammar teach 7 How is it divided? What does

orthography teach
SECOND COURSE.

How are the principles of grammar divided ? What is meant by particular principles of grammar" What by universal principles What is the standard of grammatical accuracy What is a principle in grammar 1 What is a definition ? What is a rule 4

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A vowel is a letter that can be perfectly sounded alone. The sound is simple, and it is begun and continued at pleasure with the same position of the organs, The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and w and y in all situations except when they begin a word or syllable. When placed at the beginning of words they are consonants. A consonant is a letter which cannot be perfectly sounded without the help of a vowel. The letters l, m, n, and r are called liquids, because they readily unite with other consonants. The letters b, m, p and v, are called labials, because they are articulated by the lips. The letters c, g, q and j, are called palatals, because they are articulated by the palate. The letters m and n are called nasals, because they are articulated through the nose. The letters d, t, z, c and s are called aspirates, because they are articulated mostly by the breath.

First course. How are letters divided ?

SECOND COURSE.

What are the elements of language 3 How many letters are in the English .. What is a vowel ? Name them. What are w and w called when they end a syllable % What, when they begin a syllable 7 Define a consonant What letters are called liquids? Why are they called liquids 3 What are called labials Why so called? What are called palatals? Why so called ' What letters are called nasals 1 Why so called ? What are called aspirates? Why so called 3

The letters h, f, and hard g, are called gutturals, because they are articulated mostly by the throat. The letter j represents the sounds of d and g soft. The letter a represents the sounds of k and s ; except when it begins a word; as, Xerxes. The letter z represents the sounds of d and s.

REMARKS ON THE SOUNDS OF LETTERs.

A

A has four sounds.
1. The long English sound; as in fame, cane, fate.
2. The short Italian sound of a ; as in cat, hat.
8. The long Italian sound of 3 ; as in harm, farm.
4. The broad German sound of ā as in hall, wall.

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B has the same sound in all its positions. It is sometimes silent; as in debt, subtle.

In some cases, it is not entirely silent, but protracts the syllable; as climb, tomb.

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C has two sounds. Before a, o, u, l, r and t, it has a hard sound like k ; as in code, can, cottage, etc., and it has the same sound when it ends a syllable; as in victim, flaccid. Before e, i, and y, it is always soft; as in civil, decency. C is silent in czar, victuals, etc. 0 in a few words takes a flat sound like that of 2 ; as in sacrifice, discern. C before ea, ia, ie, io, or eou, when the accent precedes, sounds like sh; as in ocean, special, species, gracious, cetaceous. Ch is generally sounded like tch; as in change, chance, China, church, etc. In Greek words; as in chyle, chorus, ch is sounded like k ; also in some proper names from foreign languages, ch is sounded like k ; as in Baruch, Enoch, etc. In words of French origin, ch is sounded like sh; as in chevalier, chicanery. Ch coming before a vowel in arch, is sounded like k ; as in

- SECOND COURSE. What letters are called gutturals | Why so called 7 What does the woes jrepresent? What the letter a 2 What does 2 represent 4 What * have a 7 b? cz

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