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ginning with a consonant; as, paleness, guileless, closely, peaceful ; except in a few words; as, due, duly; awe, awful; judge, judgment; lodge, lodgment.

False Orthography.

His features soon assumed the palness of death. His heart was perfectly guilless. He was closly pursued to his peacful home. Harrison was duely elected President. He suffered the aweful penalty of the law as a judgment for his crimes. The flood swept away the lodgement of wood which had accumulated in the stream.

RULE 10. When words end with ie, the e is dropped, and the i is changed into y before an additional syllable beginning with a vowel; as, die, dying; tie, tying; lie, lying. False Orthography.

He was in a dieing situation. Having bound him to the tree by tieing him with cords, he left him, so that the poor man passed the whole night in this position without lieing down.

RULE 11. When ing or ish is added to words ending with e silent, the e is usually omitted; as, trace, tracing ; blue, bluish. False Orthography.

After traceing a circle around the coals, he threw some fine powders upon the fire, from which a blueish flame immediately arose several feet in height.

RULE 12.

Compound words generally retain the orthography of the simple words of which they are composed; as, glasshouse, thereby, hereafter; except in permanent compounds the words full and all generally drop one l; as, already, welfare. In compounds connected by a hyphen, the double letter is retained ; as, all-wise.


What is the tenth rule for spelling 7 What, the eleventh What, the twelfth 3 -

False Orthography.

“He who lives in a glashouse should not throw stones.” He went to court and therby gained his cause. We know not what will be herafter, and yet, already we may judge something of the future wellfare of this country from past experience. The al-wise Providence rules over all things.

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$ 27. Etymology teaches the derivation of words, their classification and inflections.

REMARK 1. Etymology explains how one word is derived from another; as, from teach, are derived teacher, teachest, teacheth, taught, teaching. From great, are derived greater, greatest, and greatness.

REM. 2. Etymology, scientifically viewed, explains the origin and meaning of words, their composition, and decomposition, and their application to things according to the laws of nature and mind. It may be extended not only to the derivation of one word from another, but to the manner of deriving English words from foreign languages. This, however, is the business of the lexicographer and not of the philologist.

REM. 3. Etymology teaches also the proper method of classifying words. The object of the classification of words, is practical convenience. The only true principle of classification is the meaning of words according to present use, and not according to their primitive meaning or combinations. Most of the words in the English language express different senses, according to their construction in sentences. Thus, but is used as an adversative conjunction when it denotes opposition; as a preposition when it is used in the sense of except ; and as an adverb, when it is used in the sense of only. The noun love, denotes a simple feeling; but when used as a verb, it denotes the exercise of the feeling of love. A different position of words in a sentence, gives them different meanings.

First course. What does Etymology teach 3


* the substance of the first remark. Of the second. Of the third.

REM. 4. Etymology refers to the inflections of words. By inflections are meant the changes which are produced on the termination of words to express their different relations to one another; as, name, names ; great, greater; she, hers ; friend, friends.

REM. 5. The English language is derived chiefly from the Danish, Celtic, Gothic, and Saxon; “but in its progressive stages of refinement, it has been greatly enriched by accessions from the Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, Italian and German languages.

§ 28. The different classes of words are called parts of speech.

$ 29. There are ten parts of speech in English;Article, Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection.

REMARK. Words should be classified and parsed according to their constructive meaning. A word whose meaning accords with the definition given to a noun, should be parsed as such. One which accords with the definition of a verb, should be p." as such, etc., without being governed strictly by its Orna.

The Article.

An article is a word placed before nouns, to limit or definé their meaning. The Noun.

A noun is the name of any object of thought, material or immaterial.

FiRST COURSE. What are the different classes of words called? How many parts of speech are there? Name them. SECOND COURSE.

State the substance of the fourth remark. Of the fifth. On what principle are words classified ?

The Adjective.

An adjective is a word joined to a noun or pronoun to qualify or describe it.

The Pronoun.
A pronoun is a word that supplies the place of a noun.

The Verb.

A verb is a word that affirms, commands, or interrogates something with respect to a person or thing.

The Participle.

A participle is a word that is derived from a verb, and partakes of its nature.

The Adverb. An abverb is a particle used to modify or limit the meaning of a verb, participle, adjective, and other adverbs.

The Preposition. A preposition is a particle that expresses the relation between a noun or pronoun and some preceding word.

The Conjunction.

Conjunctions are particles that connect words, propositions, and sentences.

The Interjection.

Interjections are words uttered to express some sudden emotion of the mind.


$ 30. An article is a word placed before nouns to limit or define their meaning. The articles are a, an and the.

$31. There are two kinds of articles;–definite and indefinite.

$ 32. A and an are the indefinite articles, and gene


What is an article? How many kinds are there? What is an indefinite article?

rally denote one of a kind, but no particular one ; as, a man, a tree, an image, an island.

REMARK 1. When the following word begins with a vowel sound, an should be used; as, an arm, an hour, an heir. REM. 2. When the following word begins with a consonant sound, a should be used; as, a house, a heart, a one, a year, a use, a ewer. REM. 3. An is derived from the Saxon word arte, or any and denotes one. It was formerly written an before consonants, but now a simply is used to facilitate the utterance of words, and to increase their euphony. REM. 4. The indefinite article a or an sometimes limits the signification of nouns to one specific thing of the kind; as, Solomon built a temple. A signal battle was fought at Waterloo. The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden. Samuel Johnson compiled a dictionary.

$33. The is a definite article, and denotes a particular thing or class of things; as, the rose, the man, the nation.

REMARK 1. The is used before both vowels and consonants. In poetry the e is sometimes dropped before words beginning with a vowel, and th unites with the succeeding vowel; as, Th’ embroidered vest. When elisions are thus made, an apostrophe should be placed above or between the words.

REM. 2. A noun unlimited, is sometimes taken in its widest sense; and in other cases, it denotes a part, but not the whole species; as, “The proper study of mankind is man.” Here the word man extends to the whole species. Again; “In the first place, woman has in general a much stronger propensity than man to the perfect discharge of parental duties.” Here woman and man comprehend each the whole species of their sex. “There are fishes that have wings, and are not strangers to the airy regions.” Here the term fishes cannot denote the

FIRST course. What is a definite article? second course. When should an be used ? When, a 7 When a noun is not limited by an article, how is it generally taken 3 Does the indefinite article ever limit the name to aparticular thing of a kind? Give the substance of the first and second remarks, under section 33.

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