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Male. Moor, Nephew, Sloven, Sir, Sire, Sen,

Male. Stag stee, Uncle, Wizzard, Widower,

2. By different terminations; as,

Male. Abbot, Actor, Adulterer, Ambassador, Adulator, Anchoret, Arbiter, Auditor, Author, Barber, Baron, Benefactor, Canon, Caterer, Champion, Chanter, Charmer, Chider, Chief, Cloisterer, Coheir, Competitor, Conductor, Count, Earl, Creator, Czar, Deacon, Demandor, Demon, Detractor, Director, Doctor, Editor, Elector, Emperor, Enchantor, Fornicator, Founder, God, Governor, Guider, Hebrew, Heir,

Male. Hermit, Host, Huckster, Hunter, Idolator,


Instructor, Inventor, Jew,


Lion, Mayor,


Monitor, Murderer, Neatherd, Negro Orator,

Patron, Pedlar, Peer, Poet, Porter, Preceptor, Priest, Prince, Prior, Procurer, Prophet, Protector, Quaker, Seamster, Shepherd Solicitor, Songster, Sorcerer, Spectator,

Sultan, Suitor,

Female. moorisco neice slut madam dame daughter


Female. abbess actress adultress ambassadress adulatress anchoress arbitress auditress authoress barbress baroness benefactress Canoness cateress championess chantress charmeress chideress chiefess cloistress coheiress competitress competitrix Conductress Countess creatress czarina deaconess demandress demoness detractress directress doctress editress electress empress enchantress fornicatress foundress goddess governess






Female. hind heifer aunt witch widow.


hermitess hostess huckstress huntress idolatress inheritress inheritrix instructress inventress Jewess legislatress legislatrix lioness mayoress, mediatress, mediatrix monitress murderess neatress negress oratress oratrix patroness pedlaress peeress poetess portress preceptress priestess princess prioress procuress prophetess protectress Quakeress seamstress shepherdess solicitress songstress sorceress spectatoress sultaness sultana suitress

Male. Female. Male. Female
Tailor, tailoress Votary, "Votaress
Tempter, temptress Warrior, warrioress, .
Tiger, tigress Administrator, administratrix
Traitor, traitress Arbitrator, arbitratrix
Treasurer, treasuress Coadjutor, coadjutrix
Tutor, tutoress, tutress Deserter, desertrix
Tyrant, . tyraness Executor, executrix
Wiscount, viscountess Testator, testatrix.
Victor, victress
3. By prefixing a word, indicating sex; as,
A male teacher, a female teacher,
Male children, female children,
A man servant, a maid servant,
A he goat, a she goat.

REM. 3. When a noun of multitude conveys the idea of unity, or admits of the plural form, it is of the neuter gender; as, The society for the suppression of intemperance, will hold its annual meeting in June.

REM. 4. When a noun of multitude conveys the idea of plurality and does not admit the plural form, it takes the gender of the individuals which compose the multitude; as, “Parliament is dissolved.” “My people do not consider.”

REM. 5. When the gender of the noun denoting a brute is unknown, or a knowledge of it is unnecessary, the neuter gender is used; as, “If a man shall steal an or or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it,” etc. Ex. xxii.

REM. 6. Generic nouns often include both sexes, when they are parsed as masculine or feminine; as, “Hast thou given the horse strength? Hast thou clothed his neck with thunder?” “Doth the hawk fly with wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south ?”


Man, tree, abbot, boy,
Woman, house, abbess, girl,
Ship, male, baron, nation,
Ocean, female, baroness, virtue.

Which of the preceding nouns are masculine? Which, feminine 2 Which, neuter?

SECOND COURSE. Of what gender is a noun of multitude denoting unity? When a noun of multitude denotes plurality, what gender does it take? When the gender of a noun donoting a brute is unknown, what gender does it take 1 What do generic nouns include 1


§ 60. Cases denote the different relations which nouns and pronouns have to other parts of speech.

$ 61. There are three cases, the nominative, the possessive and the objective.

REM. The nominative and objective cases of nouns are distinguished only by their position, or the sense of the passage. The possessive case is known by the termination of the noun. The cases of most of the pronouns are distinguished by their forms.

$ 62. The nominative case denotes the subject of a verb ; as, Charles studies; Troy was; Light is sown in the path of the righteous.

REM. 1. The subject of an active verb, denotes a person or thing of which a mental or physical action is affirmed; as, “The boy plays.”

REM. 2. The subject of a neuter verb denotes a person or thing of which a particular state or quality is affirmed by the verb and its modifiers; as, “Washington was an ardent lover of his country.”

REM. 3. The subject of a passive verb, denotes a person or thing that receives an action which is described by the verb and its modifiers; as, “The primitive Christians were persecuted by opposers of Christianity.”

$ 63. The possessive case denotes the relation of property or possession; as, “John's hat.” “His book.”

§ 64. The possessive case of singular nouns, is formed by annexing s with an apostrophe; as, “John's book.”

$ 65. When the nominative plural ends with s, an

FIRST COURSE. What do cases denote? How many are there? Define the nomina

tive; the possessive. How is the possessive case formed 4, When the

nominative plural ends with s, how is the possessive formed?

second COURSE.

How do we distinguisn the nominative and objective cases? What does the subject of an active verb denote? What, the neuter? What, the passive 4

apostrophe only is annexed; as, singular, “hat's;”
plural, “hats'.”
$ 66. When plural nouns do not end with s, the
possessive case is usually formed as in the singular, by
annexing s with an apostrophe; as, “Men's.”

REM. 1. When the singular and the plural are alike in the nominative, and the apostrophe does not indicate an elision, it should follow the s in the plural; as, sheep's, sheeps'.--Dr. Johnson. e REM. 2. When the apostrophic s unites with the noun, it is pronounced in the same syllable; as, John's. But when the apostrophic s does not unite with the noun, it adds a syllable to the word; as, George's, pronounced Georgiz ; Thomas's, pronounced Thomasiz. REM. 3. When the noun ends in ence, es, or ss, the apostrophe is annexed without the s; as, “eagles' wings;” “for goodness' sake;” “for conscience' sake.” REM. 4. “Sometimes the apostrophe and s are annexed to simple characters, to express plurality;” as, 7 b's, 4 c's, 12 w"s. REM. 5. When proper names end with ss or a, the possessive case is expressed by annexing an apostrophe and the letters, if the termination with the following word requires it; as, “Ross's discoveries;” “Niles's Register.” “But when their union with the following word does not require it,” the apostrophe only is annexed; as, “Achilles' wrath.”

$ 67. The objective case denotes the object of a verb, participle or preposition; as, “John studies his lessons.” “Having accomplished my purpose, I am satisfied.” “Light burst upon his enraptured vision.”

REM. The objective case is the object of an action when it

FIRST COURSE. When the nominative plural does not end with s, how is the possessive formed? What does the objective case denote % sEconD course. When the singular and plural are alike in the nominative, what does the apostrophe indicate, and how should it follow the s?...When the apostrophic s unites with the noun, how is it pronounced? What is the effect when it does not ? When the noun ends with ence, es, or ss, how is the apostrophe annexed 4. If proper nouns end with ss or 2, how is the possessive case expressed ? hen is the objective case the object of an action ?

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follows a transitive verb or participle, and of a relation when it follows a preposition.

$68. The case absolute denotes that the noun or pronoun has no constructive dependence on any other word; as, O liberty O virtue!

REM. The form of the case absolute is like that of the nominative, except in the pronoun of the first person me, the objective form is sometimes used. Such then being the form of this case, and a knowledge of its appropriate use being acguired only from the sense of the passage, it is useless to introduce it into the declension of nouns and pronouns.


$ 69. The declension of a noun is the proper arrangement of its numbers and cases. Thus:

Sing. . Plural.
Nom. mind, Wom. minds,
Poss. mind's, Poss. minds',
Obj. mind. Obj. minds.
Sing. Plural.
Nom. man, Nom. men.
Poss. man's, Poss. men's,
Obj. man. Obj. men.
Sing. Plural.
Nom. box, Nom. boxes,
Poss. box's, Poss. boxes',
Obj. box. Obj. boxes.

FIRST course. What does the case absolute denote 7 What is the declension of a noun ? second course. When is the objective case the object of a relation? Give the substance of the remark under sec. 68.

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