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EXERCISES IN PARSING. “The boy reads.” What part of speech is the $30. Why? §30. What kind of an article? § 33. To what is it prefixed 2 Boy. What part of speech is boy? § 34, Why? § 34. What kind of a noun? § 37. Why common? § 37. What gender? § 57. Why? § 57. What person? § 50. Why third person & $50. What number? § 53. Why singular number 2 $53. What case? § 62. Why nominative 2 $62. Of what verb is it the subject? Reads. Why is it the subject of reads $ 62, Remark 1. “James learns grammar.” What part of speech is James? § 34. What kind of a noun? 36% Why? § 36. What gender ? § 57. Why masculine? 57. What person 2 S 50. Why third person? § 50. What number? § 53. Why singular number? § 53. What case? § 62. Why nominative case ? § 62. Of what verb is it the subject? Learns. Why is it the subject of learns # 562, R. 1. What part of speech is grammar? § 34. Why? § 34. What kind of a noun? § 37. Why common ? § 37. What gender? § 59. Why neuter 2 $59. What person 2 $50. Why? § 50. What number? § 53. Why singular 2 $ 53. What case? § 67, Of what verb is it the object? Learns 2 Why is it? § 67. The scholar may parse the articles and the nouns in the fol. lowing sentences. References will be made only to those sections to which no reference has hitherto been made. RULE. The subject of a finite verb must be in the nominative case. RULE. The object of a transitive verb is put in the objective case.
EXAMPLES FOR PARSING. Apples' grow. Vice degrades the mind. John has a book. The sun' shines. The world is. Tranquillity" promotes happiness. Union' is strength. The assembly" is dismissed. The disciples" were persecuted.
$ 70. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or pronoun to qualify it, or describe it; as, a good man; an industrious student.
$ 71. “Adjectives are not varied on account of gender, number, or case.”
$ 72. There are eight classes of adjectives; the common, the proper, the numeral, the definite, the distributive, the indefinite, the compound and the participial.
$ 73. A common adjective, qualifies a noun or pronoun, or defines its situation; as, “a pure mind;” “a kind man;” “southern states;” “northern regions;” “the eastern continent.”
REMARK, When an adjective follows a word in the predicate and modifies it, it may properly be called an adverbial adjective.
$ 74. A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun, and denotes the peculiar qualities or condition of the person or thing expressed by the noun; as, English, French, Roman, Baconian, Newtonian, Amer: ican, etc.
$ 75. A numeral adjective limits the noun to a specific number; as, one, two, three, four, etc.
REMARK. There are two classes of numeral adjectives, viz., ordinal and cardinal.
1. Ordinal, are used for numbering; as, first, second, third, fourth, etc.
2. Cardinal, are used for counting; as, one, two, three, four, etc.
$ 76. A definite adjective distinguishes nouns spe
FIRST course. What is an adjective 1 Is an adjective varied on account of gender or case? How many classes of adjectives are there 3. What is a common adjective 3 What is a proper adjective? What, a numeral 3 What, a definite 7 SEcond COURSE. what is an adverbial adjective" How many classes of numeral adjectives are there 1. How are the ordinal used? How, the cardinal?
cifically. They are this and that ; these and those; former and latter.
REMARK. This, these and latter, denote the nearest person or thing mentioned; that, those and former, the more distant.
§ 77. A distributive adjective denotes each one of a number considered separately. They are, each, every, either and neither.
§ 78. An indefinite adjective expresses its subjects indefinitely. They are, some, one, other, such, both, same, another, none, and sometimes which and what.
REMARK 1. When the definite, distributive and indefinite adjectives represent nouns, they should be regarded and parsed as pronouns. When they define nouns expressed or understood, they should be parsed as described above.
REM. 2. The definite, distributive and indefinite adjectives, are called by some grammarians pronominal adjectives; but the term pronominal should not be applied when they are used simply as definitives. The term pronoun denotes a word standing in the place of a noun, and should be applied to the above adjectives only when they are used as substitutes.
$ 79. A compound adjective, is composed of two or more words united by a hyphen; as, cloud-capt, rockbound, high-handed, twenty-five.
REMARK. Compound adjectives are not susceptible of the degrees of comparison; as, well-formed.
$ 80. A participial adjective, partakes of the nature of a participle and also of an adjective; as, a thriving man; a charming boy; an alluring scene.
What is, a distributive adjective? What, an indefinite? what, a compound? What, a participial
What do this, these, and latter, denote % what, that, those, and former? Give the substance of the first and second remarks under sec. 78, can compound adjectives be compared 1
ExERCISES IN DISTINGUISHING DIFFERENT ADJECTIVES.
A studious man, a pure mind, a Roman soldier, one dollar, this apple, those pears, former letter, each rose, every person, other books, rock-bound coast, amusing story.
Which of the preceding adjectives are common? Which, proper? Which, numeral? Which, definite? Which, distributive 2 Which, indefinite?
MODIFICATION OF ADJECTIVES.
$ 81. The different qualities of things are generally expressed by the degrees of comparison. $ 82. There are four degrees of comparison; viz., the diminutive, the positive, the comparative and the superlative. REMARK. The four degrees of comparison as above, are sufficiently numerous to express the most obvious relations of things compared. They, however, come far short of denoting all the minute degrees that exist in the comparison of things. The degrees are as numerous as the relations of things compared are endless. An ocean is larger than a lake. This is a general comparison; but a more minute comparison would show how many more square feet or inches the surface of the ocean contained than that of the lake. But it would be both useless and contrary to the genius of language, to apply distinct terms to every minute degree of comparison of which it is susceptible. $ 83. The diminutive denotes a degree of quality less than positive; as, greenish, reddish. REMARK. The diminutive degree of comparison is also expressed by such words as rather, considerably, quite, etc.; as, rather dark, considerably dark, quite dark. $ 84. The positive denotes a distinct quality; as, green, yellow, red, brown, great, wise, etc.
FirsT COURSE. How are adjectives modified ? What are the degrees of comparison? What is the diminutive degree ? What, the positive 3 SECOND COURSE. Give the substance of the remark under sec. 82. How is the diminutive degree sometimes expressed ?
$ 85. The comparative denotes a greater or less degree of quality than exists in another object with which it is compared; as, greater, wiser, better, redder, browner, etc.
$ 86. The superlative degree denotes the highest or lowest degree of a quality; as, greatest, reddest, brownest, least, last, worst.
REMARK 1. Some adjectives are always in the superlative degree, because they express the highest quality and extent of things without change or form; as, boundless, ceaseless, infinite, chief, extreme, supreme, unparalleled, unlimited, omnipotent, all-wise, eternal, etc.
REM. 2. Numeral, proper, definite, indefinite and distributive adjectives are incomparable.
REM. 3. Adjectives denoting the quality of figures abstractly considered, are not susceptible of comparison, but in common parlance, they are used comparatively; as, straight, true, square, round, full, circular, holy. It is often said, this stick is straighter than that; this tumbler is fuller than that; this figure is more circular, oblong, or square than that. In these expressions, it is not meant that the abstract quality of the figure is increased, but that there is an approximation to it.
$ 87. The diminutive degree, is formed by annexing ish to the simple form of the word; as, yellow, yellowtsh; red, reddish ; brown, brownish, etc.
$ 88. The comparative is formed by annexing r to the positive adjective ending with e, as, white, whiter; close, closer; and er, when it ends with a consonant; as, sweet, sweeter; small, smaller.
$ 89. The superlative degree is formed by annexing st to the adjectives ending with e, as, white, whitest ;
What is the comparative degree ? What, the superlative 3. How is the diminutive degree formed? How, the comparative How, the superlative 7
What adjectives are always in the superlative degree? What canno be compared 3 Give the substance of remark third, under sec. 86.