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$ 97. Personal pronouns denote by their form the number and person of the nouns they represent.

$98. The personal pronouns are divided into simole and compound.

$99. There are five simple personal pronouns, I, thou, he, she, it, and also their plurals, we, ye or you, and they. He denotes the masculine gender, she, the feminine, it, the neuter. The others have the same gender as their antecedents. I is the first person, thou is the second, he, she or it is the third.

$ 100. There is an equal number of compound pronouns, myself, thyself, himself, herself, and itself. Their plurals are, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.

REMARK. The compound pronouns sometimes succeed the simple pronouns to render them more emphatic ; as, I myself am free from the suspicion of crime; Thou thyself; We ourselves; They themselves.


$ 101. Relative pronouns relate to an antecedent without denoting by their forms its number or person.

REMARK. The gender and number of relative pronouns are the same as those of their antecedents.

§ 102. There are two kinds of relative pronouns; viz., simple and compound.

§ 103. The simple relatives are who, which, and that.

$ 104. Who represents only masculine and femi

First course.

Define a personal pronoun? How are personal pronouns divided How many simple personal pronouns are there? Name them. How many compound 3 What is a relative pronoun? How many kinds? What are the simple relatives? What does who represent?


Why do the compound pronouns sometimes succeed the simple pronouns';

nine nouns, except when inanimate objects are per


REMARK. Who should not be applied to children. It is improper to say, Bring me the child who is so beautiful. That should be used instead of who.

§ 105. Which, in modern use, is usually applied to animals or things. In the Scriptures, however, it is applied to persons.

REMARK 1. When we wish to distinguish one person from two or more, which may be used as referring to persons; as, “Which of the two brothers is a graduate?” “Which of them is he ‘’’’

REM. 2. Whether is sometimes used for which in the same construction; as, “Whether of them did the will of his father ?” Matt. xxi. 31.

REM. 3. Which is often prefixed to nouns denoting persons or things, as an interrogative adjective; as, “Which man do you refer to ?” “Which interest most claims our attention?”

REM. 4. Which is often a substitute for a sentence or a part of a sentence; as, “If there could be any other way of showing how men may come to a universal agreement in the things they do consent in, which I presume may be done.” “We shall find the reasons of it to be the end of language, which being to communicate thoughts.” In the former examples, which refers to all that precedes it as an antecedent; and in the latter, which refers only to the phrase, end of language, as its antecedent.

§ 106. That is applicable either to persons or things, and has only two cases, the nominative and objective.

REMARK 1. That is used for four parts of speech, relative pronoun, definite pronoun, definite adjective and conjunction. The last three are treated of in their appropriate places.

FirsT Course.
How is which applied ? To what is that applicable 3

SEcond COURSE. should who be applied to children? How is which used ? Is whether ever used for which? When is which an interrogative adjective 3, Is which ever a substitute for a sentence? How many parts of speech is that used for?

REM. 2. That is a relative when its place may be supplied by who, whom or which. REM. 3. In the following examples, the use of that is preferable to who, whom or which. 1. After the interrogatives who and which, to prevent their too frequent repetition; as, “Who that is a patriot can think lightly of the soil that gave him birth?” 2. After an adjective in the superlative degree; as, “Cataline's followers were the most corrupt that could be found at Rome.” 3. After same ; as, “This is the same lesson that you endeavored to learn last week.” 4. After two or more antecedents of different genders connected by the copulative and ; as, “The woman and the estate that became his portion, were too much for his moderation.” 5. After a collective noun as an antecedent, when it has no definite reference to individuals; as, “The multitude that assembled yesterday, will not be assembled again.” REM. 4. As, generally used as a conjunction, as an adverb or a connective adverb, should be construed as a relative pronoun after such and same when they can be changed into who, whom, which or that, and the terms such and same which define its antecedents, may be changed into the, that or those, without altering the sense; as, “Participles have the same government as the verbs from which they are derived.” “Send him such books as will please him.” “We have been accustomed to repose on its veracity with such humble confidence as surprises curiosity.” “The malcontents made such demands as none but a tyrant could refuse.” REM. 5. In the preceding examples some grammarians deem it better in the example, “Send him such books as will please him,” that an ellipsis like the following should be adopted: “Send him such books as those books are which will please him.” This ellipsis, however, is not necessary to make the meaning plain, and therefore should not be adopted. REM. 6. When which is in the objective case, it always precedes the verb that governs it.

secon D COURSE.

When is that a relative? Mention the five examples in which that is preferable to who 7 When should as be construed as a relative pro** In these examples how do some grammarians supply an elipois

REM. 7. As is sometimes a relative pronoun when it is not preceded by such or same, but refers to a sentence or part of a sentence, as an antecedent; as, “I am a linen draper bold, as you and all the world doth know.”

REM. 8. As sometimes supplies the place of such, or such as as,

“From whence might contests spring and mutual rage,
As would the camp in civil broils engage.”


§ 107. The compound relative pronouns are what, whatever, whatsoever, whoever and whosoever, whichever and whichsoever.

§ 108. What is usually a compound relative, including both the antecedent and the relative, and is equivalent to that which ; as, “Give me what I want;” i. e. that which or the thing which I want. Here that stands for the thing, and which is a relative pronoun, and refers to it as its antecedent. That is parsed as a definite pronoun, and which as a relative pronoun.

REMARK 1. What is sometimes used in the plural, and represents those which ; as, “But let us consider his faults, or what may appear such,” or those which may appear such.

REM. 2. What is sometimes equivalent to a definite adjective that or those and the relative who or which, accordin as the sense requires; as, “What virtue we possessed is lost; i. e. that virtue which we possessed is lost. In such a construction, a noun follows what, with which the definite adjective always agrees.

REM. 3. What is often used as an indefinite adjective; as, “It is not material what names are assigned to them.” When it is used in this construction in a question, it is an interrogative adjective; as, “What man is that ?”

What are the compound relative pronouns? Define what.


Is as ever a relative pronoun when it is not preceeded by such or same? Does as ever supply the place of such 7 Is what ever used in the plural Is what ever equivalent to that or those, and who or which 7 Is what ever an indefinite adjective 3

REM. 4. What is occasionally used as an interjection; as, “What! Enslave a Roman!” “What! Shall we yield up tamely our dearest rights?”

REM. 5. “What is used by the poets, preceding a noun, for that, or that which, but its place cannot be supplied by these words, without a noun between them;” as,

“What time withdrew his cheerful light,
And sought the sable caverns of the night.”

REM. 6. What is sometimes used as an adverb; and when so used, it means how, in what respects, or partly; as, “What with bad lodging and barbarous lodging, they could hardly sleep all the time of their stay.” “The year before he had so used the matter, that what by force, what by policy, he had taken from the Christians' abode thirty small castles.”— A nowles. REM. 7. Whatever and whatsoever have essentially the same meaning as what ; and when used as compound relatives, are equivalent to any or every thing which ; as, “whatever we do, should be well done,” i.e. any or every thing we do, should be well done. The antecedent in this case is the indefinite adjective any or every, and thing; and which is the relative. REM. 8. Whoever, whoso, and whosoever, are sometimes used as compound relatives and equivalent to any or every person who ; as, “Whoever, whoso or whosoever takes an oath is bound by it;" i.e. any or every person who, etc. REM. 9. Whichever and whichsoever are not thus analyzed. REM. 10. In the analysis of these words, the adverbs are not regarded. REM. 11. Whatever and whatsoever, whichever and whichsoever, like what, are sometimes equivalent to the relative who or which and the definite article the, or the definite adjectives that or those ; as, “In whatever character Butler was admitted, is unknown; give him what name you choose;” i.e. the or that character in which Butler was, etc. “Nature's

Second course. Is what ever used as an interjection ? When is what used for that or that which 7 When is what an adverb 1. How are whatever and whatsoever used ? How are whoever, whoso and whosoever used ? Is whichever thus analyzed Are the adverbs regarded in the analysis of these words? To what are whatever, whatsoever, whichever, and whichsoever equivalent?

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