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REM, 2. Pronouns of the first and second person are masculine, feminine, and neuter, according to the gender of the objects they represent. It has been said by some very respectable grammarians, that gender is applicable only to the third person singular, he, she, it. But this is obviously incorrect. I, thou, you, we, they, etc., may represent masculine, feminine, or neuter nouns, and gender is just as applicable to them as to those which denote their gender by their forms; as, he, she, it. The pronouns of the first person by personification, represent inanimate objects; as,
“Where is thy true treasure ? Gold says, not in me;
“The depth saith, It is not in me; and the sea saith, It is not with me.” Job xxviii. 14.
DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS. $118. The declension of a pronoun consists in a proper arrangement of its numbers and cases. The simple personal pronouns are thus declined: First Person.
REMARK 1. Most of the simple pronouns have two forms in the possessive case; as, my, mine; thy, thine; her, hers;
In what does the declension of a pronoun consist 7 Decline I. Thou. Pse. She. It. SECOND COURSE. How is the gender of pronouns of the first and second persons regulated? How many forms have most of the simple personal pronouns?
our, ours; your, yours ; their, theirs. My, thy, her, our, gour and their, are always followed by a noun expressed, by which they are governed. Mine, thine, hers, ours, yours and theirs, are substitutes for two words, or compound pronouns; as, “These return so much better out of your hands, than they went from mine;” i. e. my hands. Here mine is used for my and hands, and is construed as a pronoun in the possessive case, and governed by hands implied, and hands in the objective case after from. “Wherefore leave your forests of beasts for ours (our forest) of brutes, called men.” “My sword and yours (your sword.) are kin.”—Shakspeare. “Yours (your letter) of the 26th Oct., I have received, as I have always done yours (your letters) with no little satisfaction.”—Wicherly to Pope. “The reason is, that his subject is generally things; theirs (their subject.) on the contrary, is persons.”—Camp. Rhet. REM. 2. “Mine and thine were formerly used before all words beginning with a vowel sound, and my and thy before others.” “It was thou, a man of mine equal, my guide and mine acquaintance.”—Psalm. But this practice is now obsolete, or peculiar to the poets and the Scriptures; as, “Time writes no wrinkles on thine azure brow.”—Byron. REM. 3. In ancient times, he, his and him, were applied to things neuter. In our translation of the Bible, the pronoun it is employed in the nominative and the objective; but his is retained in the possessive and neuter; as, “Look not thou upon the wine when it is red, when it giveth his color in the cup, when it moveth itself aright.”—Prov. xxiii. 31. “Its is not found in the Bible except by misprint.” REM. 4. Ye is sometimes in the objective case.
COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. § 119. The compound personal pronouns are used only in the nominative and objective cases. The singular number is formed by annexing the noun self to
FiRST COURSE. How are compound personal pronouns used ? How are the singular
and plural numbers formed 4
By what are my, thy, her, our, your and their o: followed - How were mine and thine formerly used? How were he, his and him anciently applied ?
the personal pronouns my, thy, your, her, him and it :
and the plural by annexing selves to our, your and
First Person. Second Person. Sing. Plural. Sing. Plural. Nom. myself, ourselves, Nom. thyself, yourselves, Poss. Poss. Obj. myself, ourselves. Obj, thyself, yourselves.
REMARK 1. Self renders a personal pronoun more emphatic, when it is annexed to it. In the Saxon it was annexed to all the cases; as, he-self, his-self, him-self; in the English language, however, it is annexed only to the nominative and objective. When an adjective is prefixed to self, the pronouns are written separate in the possessive case; as, “My noble self;” “His own self;” “ Their own selves.”
REM. 2. Self is sometimes annexed to the plural pronoun your, when a single person is addressed; as, “My dear SOn, you yourself know well my desire that your character may be unblemished.”
REM. 3. Self is sometimes prefixed to a noun, and thus forms a compound noun; as, self-love, self-interest.
$ 120. DECLENSION of RELATIVE AND INTERRoGATIVE
PRONOUNS. Simple Relatives. Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. Nom. who, who, Nom. which, which, Poss, whose, whose, Poss. whose, whose,
Olj. whom, whom. Obj, which, which.
Are compound personal pronouns ever declined 3 Decline myself, thyself, and himself. Decline who and which.
What effect does self have when annexed to a personal pronoun? When is self annexed to the plural pronoun your?
REMARK 1. That whose may be the possessive case of which, and is applicable to things as well as persons, is supported by abundant authority; as, “This is one of the most clear characteristics of its being a religion whose origin is divine.” —Blair. “And the fruit Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste Brought death.”—Milton.
“Pure the joy without alloy,
“The lights and shades whose well accorded strife,
“Is there any other doctrine whose followers are punished?”
Singular. Plural. : Singular. Plural.
Nom. what, what, Nom. whoever, whoever,
Poss. . - Poss. whosever, whosever,
Obj. what, what. Olj. whomever, whomever.
Nom. whosoever, whosoever,
REM. 2. Whatever and whatsoever, whichever and whichsoever, are used in both numbers, but only in the nominative and objective cases, their form remaining the same.
§ 121. The indefinite pronouns, other and one, are thus declined:
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. Nom. other, others, Nom. one, OneS, Poss. other's, others', Poss. one's, ones', Obj. other, others. Obj, one, Ones.
ExERCISES IN DISTINGUISHING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PRONOUNS.
I, thou, he, his, him, they, theirs, them, ye, you, our, we, us, myself, himself, themselves, ourselves, yourselves, who,
FirsT COURSE. Decline what. Whoever. Whosoever. How are the indefinite pronouns other and one declined" Second COURSE.
May whose be in the possessive case, and applicable to thing. well as persons? How are whatever, whatsoever, whichever and whichsoo" used? which, that, whom, whose, what, any, other, none, both, this, those, former, each, every, this. Which of the preceding pronouns are personal? Which, relative 2 Which, definite 2 Which, indefinite 2 Which, distributive 2 EXERCISES IN PARSING.
“He is a good man.” What part of speech is he $92. Why? § 92. Whypersonal? § 97. What person is it? § 50. Of what number is it? § 53. Of what gender is it? § 57. Why? § 57. What case? § 62. Why the nominative? § 62. Of what verb is it the subject? Is. Why the subject of is $62, Rem. 2. [The article, adjective and moun in this erample, the pupil may parse as he has been taught in the previous lessons.] “He is happy who lives virtuously.” What part of speech is who £ $ 92. Why? § 92. What kind? § 101. Why? § 101. Of what number and person? § 101, Rem. 1. Why third person, singular number? § 101, Rem. 1. What case? § 62. Decline who. § 120. Why the nominative * $62. Of what verb is it the subject? Lives. Why the subject of lives * $62, Rem. 1.
Relative and personal pronouns agree with their antecedents in gender and number.
RULE 2. A noun or pronoun denoting the possessor, is governed by the following noun denoting the thing possessed.
EXAMPLES FOR PARSING.
We are dependent on each other's" assistance. Who” is there that can subsist by himself?" Of whom” were the articles bought 2 I' walk. Thou" ridest. We read. You study. It is made. This is the knowledge which I desire. Give me what” you please. James did whatever” he wished to do. What” man is that ? Which" course will you pursue? Who
* $92, 97. 2 @ 111, Rem. 2. 3 & 109. * $ 106. 5 § 98. 6 (\ 110. 7 & 92.
8 & 92. 9 (§ 105. 10 & 108. m $ 108, R. 7, is $ 108, R. 3. is § 105, R. 3.