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and offices were subjected lo a penalty of 500/. In 1716, the spirit of adventure was excited by the sale of chances and parts of chances of tickets, which occasioned parliament again to interfere: all such practices, and all undertakings resembling lotteries, or founded on the state lottery, were declared illegal, and prohibited under a penalty of 100/. beyond the penalties previously enacted against private lotteries.*
The attention of " the Spectator" was directed to the lottery mania prevailing at this period. One of its writers observing, on the predilection for particular numbers, ranks it among the pastimes and extravagancies of human reason, which is of so busy a nature, that it will exert itself on the meanest trifles, and work even when it wants materials. He instances, that when a man has a mind to adventure his money in a lottery, every figure of it appears equally alluring, and as likely to succeed as any of its fellows. They all of them have the same pretensions to goodluck, stand upon the same foot of competition; and no manner of reason can be given, why a man should prefer one to the other, before the lottery is drawn. In this case therefore, caprice very often acts in the place of reason, and forms to itself some groundless imaginary motive, where real and substantial ones are wanting. I know a well-meaning man that is very well pleased to risk his good fortune upon the number 1711, because it is the year of our Lord. I am acquainted with a tacker that would give a good deal for the number 134. On the contrary, I have been told of a certain zealous dissenter, who being a great enemy to popery, and believing that bad men are the most fortunate in this world, will lay two lo one on the number 666 against any other number; because, says he, it is the number of the beast. Several would prefer the number 12000 before any other, as it is the number of the pounds in the great prize. In short, some are pleased to find their own age in their number; some that they have got a number which makes a pretty appearance in the cyphers; and others, because it is the same number that succeeded in the last lottery Each of these, upon
no other grounds, thinks he stands fairest for the great lot, and that he is possessed of what may not be improperly called the golden number.
I remember among the advertisements in the " Post Boy" of September the 27th, I was surprised to see the following one:
This is to give notice, that ten shillings over and above the market-price will be given for the ticket in the 1600000/. Lottery, N" 132, by Nath. Cliff, at the Bible and Three Crowns in Cheapside.
This advertisement has given great matter of speculation to coffee-house theorists. Mr. Cliff's principles and conversation have been canvassed upon this occasion, and various conjectures made, why he should thus set his heart upon N° 132. I have examined all the powers in those numbers, broken them into fraction-, extracted the square and cube root, divided and multiplied them all ways, but could not arrive at the secret till about three days' ago, when I received the following letter from an unknown hand, by which I find that Mr. Nathaniel Cliff is only the agent, and not the principal, in this advertisement.
"Mr. Spectator, "I am the person that lately advertised I would give ten shillings more than the current price for the ticket N° 132 in the lottery now drawing; which is a secret I have communicated-to some friends, who rally me incessantly upon that account. You must know I have but one ticket, for which reason, and a certain dream I have lately had more than once, I was resolved it should be the number I most approved. I am so positive I have pitched upon the great lot, that I could almost lay all I am worth of it. My visions are so frequent and strong upon this occasion, that I have not only possessed the lot, but disposed of the money which in all probability it will sell for. Tins' morning, in particular, I set up an equipage which I look upon to be the gayest in the town the liveries are very rich, but not gaudy. I should be very glad to see a speculation or two upon lottery subjects, in which you would oblige all people concerned, and in particular
"Your most humble servant,
"P. S. Dear Spec, if I get the 1 WOOL I'll make thee a handsome present."
After having wished my correspondent good luck, and thanked him for his intended kindness, I shall for this time dismiss the subject of the lottery, and only observe, that the greatest part of mankind are in some degree guilty of my friend Gosling's extravagance. We are apt to rely upon future prospects, and become really expensive while we are only rich in possibility. We live up to our expectations, not to our possessions, and make a figure proportionable to what we may be, not what we are. We outrun our
Cresent income, as not doubting to disurse ourselves out of the profits of some future place, project, or reversion that we have in view. It is through this temper of mind, which is so common among us, that we see tradesmen break, who have met with no misfortunes in their business; and men of estates reduced to poverty, who have never suffered from losses or repairs, tenants, taxes, or law-suits. In
short, it is this foolish sanguine temf<this depending upon contingent futsint.^ that occasions romantic generosity, chimerical grandeur, senseless ostentation, and generally ends in beggary and rni The man who will live above his pr^sesj circumstances is in great danger of livir c in a little time much beneath them, or, as the Italian proverb runs, the oian wk lives by hope will die by hunger.
It should be an indispensable rale 12 life, to contract our desires to our preserK condition, and whatever may be oox expectations, to live within the compass of what we actually possess. It will b«r time enough to enjoy an estate when .■: comes into our hands; but if we anticipate our good fortune, we shall lose tbe pleasure of it when it arrives, and mar possibly never possess what we have so foolishly counted upon.*
• Spectator, No. 191.
Kf)t fcotttrp Wtt)tt\, 1826.
This engraving is slipped on here for of it will occur in the ensuing sheei,
the sake of readers who are fond of cut; with several amusing prints relating la
rather ihan as an illustration of any thing the present subjm. immerliately preceding. An explanation
In " TAo Examiner"* there is an arti. cle on Lotteries by Mr. George Smeeton, of Uermondsey : wherein he says, " I am glad to see that Mr. Hone has taken up the subject in his Every-Day Book, by giving us a view of the drawing of the lottery, 1751 ; and this month (October) I hope he will treat us with a continuation of it. The print by N. Parr, in six compartments, entitled LetDivertittemcnti de la Lotcrie, is worthy of his attention: it is a lively and true picture of the folly, infatuation, and roguery of the times. If he has not the print (which is rather scarce) I can furnish him with it out of my portfolio." Mr. Smeeton has obligingly communicated the loan of his engraving, from whence the representation on this page has been selected. The
original print, designed by J. Marchant, drawn by II. Gravelot, and engraved by Parr,was " published by E. Kyland, in Ave Mary-lane, in the year 17— hundred odd; the scissars having snipped away from this copy of the engraving the two figures which particularized the year, it cannot be specified, though from the costume it appears to have been in the reign of George II.
Parr's print is in six compartments: the four corner ones represent, 1. " Good Luck—£1000prize;" a scene of rejoicing at the news. 2. " Bad Luck—what, all blanks?" a ncene of social disturbance. 3. "Oh—let Fortune be kind;'' the desires of a female party in conference with an old woman, who divines by coffeegrounds. 4. " Dear Doctor 1 consult the stars;" another female party waiting on a fortune-teller for a cast of his office. The •iiiildle compartment at the bottom has a view of " Exchange-alley," with its frequenters, in high business. The middle compartment, above it, is the drawing of the lottery in the view now placed before the reader, wherein it may be perceived that the female visitants are pewed oft un one side and the men on the other; and that the pickpockets dextrously exercise their vocation among the promiscuous crowd at the moment when the drawing of a thousand pound prize excites a strong interest, and a female attracts attention by proclaiming herself the holder of the lucky " No. 765."
To this eager display of the ticket by the fortunate lady, a representation of a scene at the drawing of " the very last lottery that will ever be drawn in England" might be a collateral illustration.
The Unfortunate Lady.
On the 2d of November, 1826, a lady named Free, who had come up from the country to try her fortune in the lottery, complained to the Lord Mayor, at the Mansion-house, that she had been deprived of her property, the sixteenth share of a 30,000/. prize, by the misconduct of those engaged in conducting the drawing. She stated, that she chose the ticket No. 17,092.
The Lord Mayor.—You had some particular reason, then, for selecting that number?
The Complainant replied, it was true, she had ; she wished to have a ticket with the number of the year in which she was born, and finding that she could not get that precise number, she took one of 17,000, instead of 1700, as the most fortunate approach. So indeed it turned out to be; for she was sitting in the hall where the lottery was drawn, and heard her number distinctly cried out as one of the 30,000/. prizes, and with her own eyes she distinctly saw the officer stamp it. Nevertheless, another ticket had been returned as the prize.
The Lord Mayor doubted, from the manner in which the tickets were well known to be drawn, whether the complainant's anxiety had not made her mistake a similar number for her own.
The Complainant.—" Oh no, my lord; i» is impossible that I can be mistaken, though other people say I am. I shall not give up my claim, on the word of lottery-office clerks. If there's any mistake,
it is on their part; I trust to my tentet."
The Lord Mayor observed, that there was scarcely any trusting even to tee "senses" on such occasions; and asked her, whether she did Dot almost feel the money in her pockets at the very time she fancied she heard her number announced?
The Complainant assured his lordship, that she heard the announcement as calmly as could be expected, and that see by no means fainted away. She certainly made sure of having the property ; she sat in the hall, and went out when the other expectants came away.
Mr. Cope, the marshal, who stated that he was in attendance officially at the drawing, to keep the peace, declared that he heard all the fortunate numbers announced, and he was sorry to be comf>elled to state his conviction that this beonging to the lady was not one of them.
The Lord Mayor said, he was afraid the complainant had deceived herself. He dismissed the application, recommending her to go to the stamp-office, and apply to the commissioners, who would do any thing except pay the money to satisfy her.»
In allusion to the lady's name, and his decision on her case, his lordship is said to have observed on her departure, "not Free and Eaty."
Reverting to a former period, for the sake of including some remarkable notices of lotteries adduced by Mr. Smeeton, we find him saying, on the authority of the "London Gazette," May 17, J 688, that, besides the lottery at the Vere-street theatre, " Ogilby, the better to cairy on his Britannia, had a lottery of books at Garraway'i Coffee-home, in 'Changealley."
Mr. Smeeton has the following three paragraphs:—
Lotteries of various kinds seem to have been very general about this period; indeed so much so, that government issued a notice in the London Gazette, Sept. 37, 1683, to prevent the drawing of any lotteries (and especially a newly-invented lottery, under the name of the riffling, or raffling lottery) except those under his majesty's letters patent for thirteen years, granted to persons for their sufferings, and
* Tht Times, NoTtml*, 3, 165*.
have their seal of office with this inscription—* Meliora Designuvi.'
In 1683, prince Rupert dying rather j>oor, a plan was devised to " raise the ■wind" by disposing of all his jewels; but as the public were not satisfied with the mode of drawing the lotteries, on account of the many cheats practised ou them, they would not listen to any proposals, until tlie king himself guaranteed to s^e that all was fair, and also, that Mr. I'rancis Child, the goldsmith, at Teinplebar, London, would be answerable for their several adventures; as appears by the London Gazette, Oct. 1, 1083:— "These are to give notice, that the jewels of his late royal highness prince Rupert liare been particularly valued and ap-* praised by Mr. Isaac Legouch, Mr. Christopher Rosse, and Mr. Richard Beauvoir, jewellers, the whole amounting to twenty thousand pounds, and will lie sold by way of lottery, each lot to be five pounds. The biggest prize will be a great pearl necklace, valued at 8,000/., and none less than 100/. A printed particular of the said appraisement, with their divisions into lots, will be delivered gratis, by Mr. Francis Child, at Temple-bar, London, into whose hands such as are willing to be adventurers are desired to pay their money, on or before the first day of November next. As soon as the whole sum is paid in, a short day will be appointed (which, it is hoped, will be before Christmas) and notified in the Gazette, for the drawing thereof, which will be done in his majesty's presence, who is pleased to declare, that he himself will tee all the prizes put in amongst the blanks, and that the whole will be managed with equity and fairness, nothing being intended but the sale of the said jewels at a moderate value. And it is further notified, for the satisfaction of all as shall be adventurers, that the said Mr. Child shall and will stand obliged to each of them for their several adventures. And that each adventurer shall receive their money back if the said lottery be not drawn and finished before the first day of February next."—Mr. Child was the first regular banker: he began business soon after the Restoration, and received the honour of knighthood. lie lived in FleeUtreet, where the shop still continues in a state of the highest respectability. A subsequent notice says, " that the king wili probably, tomorrow, in the Banquetting-house, see all the blat.ks told over,
that they may not exceed their number; and that the papers on which the prizes are to be written shall be rolled up in bis presence; and that a child, appointed either by his majesty or the adventurers, shall draw the prizes.'"—What would be said now, if his present majesty were to be employed in sorting, folding, and counting the blanks and prizes in the present lottery .'
About 1709, there was the Greenwich Hospital Adventure, sanctioned by an act of parliament, which the managers describe as " liable to none of the objections made against other lotteries, as to the fairness of the drawing, it not being possible there should be any deceit in it, as it has been suspected in others."—Likewise there was Mr. Sydenham's Land Lottery, who declared it was " found very difficult and troublesome for the adventurers for to search and find out what prizes they have come up in their number-tickets, from the badness of the print, the many errors in them, and the great quantity of prizes." —The Twelve-penny, or Nonsuch, and the For tuna t us lotteries, also flourished at the commencement of the eighteenth century.*
LOTTFRY OF Dehr.
In May, 1715, the proprietors of Sion gardens advertised the following singular method of selling deer from their park. They appointed the afternoons of Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, for killing these animals; when the public were admitted at one shilling each to sec the operation, or they might purchase tickets from four to ten shillings, which entitled them, it is supposed, by way of lottery, to different parts of the beast,—as they say the quantity killed was to be divided into sixteen lots, and the first choice to be governed by the numbers on the tickets: a ten shilling ticket was entitled to a fillet; eight, a shoulder; seven, a loin, etc. If the full price of the deer was not received on a given day, the keeper held the money till that sum was obtained. They offered to sell whole deer, and to purchase as many as might be offered .f
In 1723, the resentment of the house of commons was directed against the
• Mr. SmecMon In the ExamUMT.