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EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU-
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,

SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

VOLUME II.

NEW YORK :
D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 443 & 445 BROADWAY.

M.DCCC.LXIII.

Harvard College Library.

Transferred from
Engineering Library

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by

D. APPLETON & COMPANY,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District

of New York.

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PREFACE.

The favorable reception given to the volume of this work for the preceding year has induced the publishers to make special efforts in the preparation of this one. It is their aim to make an Annual Supplement not only to the New American Cyclopædia, but to all others, which shall embrace contemporaneous events, and the progress attained in the various branches of knowledge. Such a work is addressed to all classes of readers, since it includes in its contents whatever transpires in political, military, civil, and social affairs, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, art, and mechanical industry.

The year 1862 will probably be looked upon as the most important in a period of great events. It witnessed the struggles of great armies; the numerous battles and ceaseless skirmishes in the United States; the expedition against Mexico; the disgraceful flight of King Otho of Greece; the unfortunate conflict at Aspromonte, in Italy; the enkindling of the Polish revolution; the French war in Cochin China ; the recognition in Russia of the rights of man, by the approaching emancipation of the serfs; the Tae-ping rebellion in China ; and, not least, the distress in Lancashire, and the stoppage of the looms of Lyons. Of scarcely less note were the naval conflict below New Orleans; the contest between the Monitor and Merrimac, and the destructive exploits of the Alabama. Among the peaceful events were the debates and proceedings in the Federal Congress on confiscation and emancipation; the triumph of antislavery views in the Government of the United States, and its measures for emancipation; the silent revolution shown by the ballot-box; and the measures of the seceded States to secure their independent organization.

The relation of these events, especially those of a military character, it is hoped, will be found truthful and just. It is a detailed statement, day by day and step by step, of the movements of the armies, the objects of those movements, and their consequences. It has been prepared chiefly from official papers, and is accompanied with corresponding maps and plans of battles. Important documents and reports are also given.

The details of the internal affairs of the conntry embrace the organizations of the armies North and South, their officers, and the number and condition of the troops; the important measures of the Federal and Confederate Congresses ; the acts and resolutions of State Legislatures and State political organizations; the votes of the citizens at the elections; the messages of the Presidents of the United and seceded States; the orders and instructions of cabinet officers and of commanding generals; the commercial regulations relating to trade with ports of the Southern States ; the loans, taxes, and currency measures and debts of the Federal and Confederate Gover ments; their intercourse with foreign nations, and the difficult questions that occurred; the enforcement of martial law, and the exchange of prisoners; thus comprising all important occurrences in the history of the nation.

The interesting events relating to foreign nations, as above stated, are presented with such fulness as to enable the reader to comprehend their causes, their influence upon the welfare of the people, and their probable results.

The progress of mechanical industry is shown in the active construction of iron-clad vessels ; in the display at the British Industrial Exhibition ; in the many interesting inventions presented at the Patent Office; in the repairs of the steamer Great Eastern, and some other achievements.

The developments in natural science have not been overlooked. In some branches these have been fully brought up, and notice has been taken of various questions raised among scientific men, and the views presented in their discussions.

The continued prosperity of the commerce of the country, and its kindred pursuits, since the previous year, and the surprising resources of the people, as shown in the vast financial operations of the Government, forming a portion of current history of more than usual interest, are explained with ample details.

The geographical explorations were active in all quarters, and those of archæology produced some surprising results. The record of literature was hardly less important than in former years, although the number of works issued was somewhat reduced.

The present condition of the principal religious denominations of the United States is so presented as to show their branches, membership, numbers, views on civil affairs, and the spread of their distinctive opinions among the nations of the earth.

The mortality of the year was unusually large, and the number of distinguished men who closed their career was far greater than usual. Their services have been fully recognized.

THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

А. AFRICA, one of the six grand divisions of Zambezi to the Victoria Falls, and exploring a the earth's surface, comprises the southwest- portion of the course of the Shire and the Rovern portion of the eastern continent. Its po- uma as well as the lakes Nyassa and Nyanja. litical divisions are, on the north, the Empire of East of Mozambique, and separated from it by Morocco; the French province of Algeria; the the Mozambique channel, is the great and poppashaliks of Tunis, Tripoli

, and Barca, and the ulous island of Madagascar. oasis of Fezzan, dependencies of the Turkish South Africa is composed of several states, empire; Egypt, a viceroyalty of the Turkish part of them British colonies, and part in some empire, though in a state of quasi-independ- sense dependencies of these. The Cape Colony ency. 'On the east, Nubia and Kordofan, de- is the oldest of these, and occupies the southern pendencies of Egypt; Abyssinia, a collection of portion of the continent; above it, on the S. E., petty states under savage chieftains, a consid- are Caffraria, Natal, and the Zulu country; and erable number of which have recently become lying west of these and separated from them sabject to the sway of the bold and capable by the Kalamba mountains, the Orange river, Theodore, the chief of Amhara, who has taken and Transvaal Republics, composed mostly of the title of " King of the Kings of Ethiopia;" the Dutch settlers and their Hottentot or Bechucountries bordering on the gulf of Aden and ana dependents. On the west coast, north of the Indian Ocean, and stretching south westward the Orange river, and extending about 300 for more than a thousand miles; these are in- miles into the interior, is the Hottentot counhabited by tribes of savages known by the try, and lying between this and the Transvaal names of Somauli, Wakuafi, Wanika, Gallă, &c. Republics, the land of the Bechuanas. &c. The names of the principal countries are: North of the Hottentot country, stretching Adel, Ajan, Berbera, Zanguebar (which is a northward for more than 1,500 miles, is the collection of several states), and Mozambique, region long known as Lower Guinea, but really the coast of which is held by the Portuguese. composed of numerous chieftaincies and some At different points of this long stretch of coast Portuguese colonies. These chieftaincies, bethe Arabs have established themselves, and ginning with the most southern, are Cimbebas have reduced the native tribes to subjection, and the country of the Damaras, Benguela, Anthough others, as the Gallas, defy their author- gola a Portuguese colony, Congo, Loango, the ity and maintain an ascendency over the tribes region of the Gabün, country of the Calbongas, of the interior. Of these interior tribes or and Biafra. Between this and the eastern their country little is known, the many attempts coast described above, lies a vast tract, varying made by missionaries and explorers to pene- in width from ten to twenty-eight degrees of trate to any considerable distance from the longitude, and extending from nearly ten decoast, having been, in most instances, repulsed grees above to sixteen degrees below the equaby the savages, often with the loss of the lives tor, almost wholly unexplored by Europeans. of the explorers.

On the Mozambique coast Along the eastern portion of it Dr. Livingstone the Portuguese have maintained for many years has made some discoveries, but much of this an extended commerce, mainly in ivory and has only been penetrated by him and his adslaves. Dr. Livingstone has penetrated into the venturous coadjutors. interior through this country, ascending the From the gulf of Biafra the continent turns

VOL II.-1

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