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BANKS AND BANKERS OF CINCINNATI-JOHN R. DE CAMP.

ORIGIN OF BANKS.

was

Banking as a profession, by way of deWhen, in the old Arcadian days, the posits and discounts, bills of exchange, people of the Peloponnesus, leading the drafts, checks, etc., began in the sevenlives of shepherds, thought it fair dealing teenth century in England, as an outto exchange a ram for a lamb, human growth of the Exchequer which traffic had its simplest, if not its fairest founded by William the Conqueror-an methods of transaction. Then traffic did institution now more than eight hundred not flow as it does now," from lands of years old. But the lending of money on suns to lands of snow,” for the reason

collaterals and on real estate mortgages is that there was no "engine to drive com

purely a modern affair, suggested perhaps merce around the world.” Beginning by the misfortunes of the Merchant of thus, in the simple exchange of one thing Venice who, instead of hypothecating his for another, the varied and increasing bills of lading for his cargoes, pledged to necessities of men rendered a value, or

Shylock, as a penalty and forfeit of his standard of value, necessary in addition bondto an exchangeable commodity; hence

A pound of flesh to be by him cut off

Nearest the Merchant's heart." the origin of money, from the Latin moneo, to advice or mark--that is, to show Among the first banks organized by some device thereon, the weight or in the history of the world are the followfineness of the metal of which ancient ing: the Bank of Venice, A. D. 1157 ; coins were made; Moneta ita appeliatur the Bank of England, 1694 ; the Bank of quia fraus in pondere vel metalla fiat Ireland, 1783; the Bank of France, 1716; (Money was thus named because fraud and the Bank of North America, the first either in the weight or metal was pro- in the United States, January 7, 1782. hibited).

Hence, when the Romans were in want of money, Juno admonished them to

Camp, derived from Campe or Campes, practice justice, and there would be no Normandy. Walter, Ingulph, Rodolph such need; and when they found the good and Gaufrid de Campe occur in the Duchy, effect of the counsel, she was surnamed twelfth century. John and Matthew de Juno Moneta, and money was coined in Campes were in England, A. D., 1199. her temple. In process of time, money (Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaries was made a goddess, and enshrined by de la Normandie) Kemp. Walter de the name of Dea Pecunia, under the figure Campis or Des Camps, Ingulph, Radulof a woman holding a balance in one phus, Gaufridus, Gervasius, Helta, Richhand and a cornucopia in the other. ard, Wymarc of Normandy. John de

ORIGIN OF THE DE CAMP FAMILY.

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dred years.

Campes was of Essex; and in 1324 Roger twice cardinal and twice lord chancellor
Kempe was of Suffolk. Hence the Bar- of England."
onets Kempe, (Rotuli Curie Regis and He died in 1453, a very old man, leav-
Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs).

ing many by his name and blood. John de Camp went from Normandy Burke's History of the Gentry of Great into England, A. D. 1324, and became Britain' says, “the family became dispersed the progenitor of the De Camps of Essex, throughout the south of England, in sevand of Spains Hall, where the De Camp eral branches, all bearing the same coator Kemp family was seated for three hun- armor, but differenced in the crest, and

who have maintained the highest reSir John de Camp was a distinguished spectability.” French knight, who was killed at the John Des Champs belonged to an anbattle of Poiters, September 19, 1356.

cient family established in Perigord, Johannis de Champe, knight, one of France. At the revocation of the Edict the gentry of Berkshire, A. D. 1433, of Nantes, 1685, he took refuge first in mentioned by Thomas Fuller as one of Geneva and then in Prussia. the worthies of England during the reign His son, John Ezekiel de Camp, enof King Henry VI.

tered the civil service of the West India Lord Chancellor John Campe, or company and became a member of the Kempe, "younger son of Thomas, grand- council of the presidency of Madras. child of Sir Roger, descended from Nor- George De Campe, son of William De manus De Campe, both knights," of Olant- Campe, descendant of "John de Camp igh, Kent, was born A. D. 1380, and of Essex in 1324," owned and occupied educated at Merton college, Oxford ; ob- Pentlow hall, where he died in 1606. tained distinction in the time of Henry Pentlow church belonged to the manor V., by whom he was appointed Chief of Pentlow hall, and contains a very fine Justiciary of Normandy. He was sent tomb of the De Camps, having on it the as an ambassador to treat with Ferdinand recumbent figure of John Camp who died of Aragon for a league of perpetual amity in 1609, and his wise, Eleanor Drew of and to negotiate for the marriage of his Devonshire, together with fourteen childaughter with Henry V.; was afterwards dren kneeling around, with coat-of-arms made Bishop of Rochester, Chichester and this inscription: and London ; was Archbishop of Canter

" Here lyeth John Campe, that worthy esquyer, bury, and in 1439 was created Cardinal by That never detracted the poor man's hire ; the title of Saint Balbina. All his prefer- Of veritie and knowledge a studious seeker, ments are comprehended in the following

Of word and promise a faithful keeper.

Heaven hath his soule through Christ his grace, verse :

Earth his body entombed in this place." Bis primas, ter præsul erat, bis cardinefunctus,

THE DE CAMPS OF NEW JERSEY AS WESTEt dixit legem, bis cancellarius Anglis.

ERN PIONEERS. That is, "twice bishop, once archbishop, Moses De Camp, who won the title of captain in the Revolutionary war, and a President Lincoln eight of these brothers, descendant of Nicholas De Camp of Con. David, Walter, Hiram, Harvey, Joseph, necticut, emigrated from Essex county, Daniel, Lainbert and Job, visited WashNew Jersey, in 1812, bringing with him ington city, and were introduced to the his venerable wife, Sarah; with him also President by Judge William Johnson as came his son Ezekiel and his wife, Mary "eight brothers from Ohio, who all voted Baker De Camp, and several children. for him, and who daily prayed to the

Upon arriving in Cincinnati, Nicholas Almighty that he might be guided by Longworth, esq., whom Captain De Camp wisdom, and the Union preserved.” had known in New Jersey, advised his The surname, “De Camp,” is a Normanfriend to purchase a thirty-acre tract of French word and used to denote “a com ground, then on the western boundary of batant, champion, man-at-arms or knight.” the young city. But the proposition met The territorial “de” signified “of” or with the emphatic protest of the conti- "from,” and originally implied the posnental soldier and his son Ezekiel, who session of manorial estates, and therefore, said that they had come to buy a farm in that a family bearing it belonged to the the west, not a patch of ground near a landed aristocracy. country town.

During the colonial period the name That patch of ground is now in the experienced changes in its orthography, heart of Cincinnati and is worth millions such as De Camp, Camp, Kamp and of dollars. The pioneers therefore moved Kemp. on and located upon a section of land in John de Camp, in the reign of Edward Reily township, Butler county. There I., by his wife, Alice, had a son, Nicholas they settled down to the hard and de Camp, who married Margaret de almost comfortless life of pioneers. Hispania, or Spain ; hence “Spain's hall,

Amid the austerities and privations of Essex.” uncultivated nature they struggled for self- The first emigrant to this country from subsistence and for the support of the England was Nicholas de Camp, who apseventeen children that finally constituted pears in Milford, Connecticut, in 1639. the family of Ezekiel and Mary De Camp: From Nicholas descended William de --Phebe, Hannah, David, Walter, Hiram, Camp, who removed to New Jersey in John, Harvey, Joseph, Margaret, Henry, 1661. The following are some of the Daniel, James, Moses, Sarah, Mary, Lam- Christian names of his descendants who bert and Job-as noble and true-hearted, became numerous and influential in New as honest and industrious and useful a Jersey, and where they always maintained band of brothers as ever emanated from their ancient respectability: John, Samuel, one household. Moses died at eleven Moses, William, Nathaniel, Joseph, Mary, years of age. The others grew up to Hannah, David, Walter, Aaron, Phebe, man's estate and married. Most of them Job, James, Daniel, Sarah, Caleb, Rachel, settled in Cincinnati.

Harvey, Joanna, Ephraim, etc. One month before the assassination of Harvey de Camp, capitalist, father of

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