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Crossing from the head of the Mau- of the previous year, prohibiting all mee, in 1766, to the waters of the Wa- governors from granting warrants for bash, at the portage, then a little over two lands to the westward of the sources of hundred miles, brought the traveler to the rivers which run into the Atlantic, Weatanon, where, in the fort, on the and forbidding all persons purchasing north side of the Wabash, were living such lands or settling on them without about fourteen French families, near special license from the crown. Gov. which were two Indian villages, occu- ernor Penn was enjoined to use all pied by Kickapoos and Mascoutins; means in his power to prevent this emibut the Weas had their village on the gration and cause such persons as had opposite side of the river. Going down actually settled in the trans-Alleghany the Wabash another two hundred miles, country to be removed. The reason and Vincennes would be reached, the for this action on part of the king was, site of the city of the same name, in the Indians had sent in complaints of what is now the state of Indiana. Here the white men's encroachments on their were eighty or ninety French families territory, which included not only all and a village of the Piankeshaw In- the region watered by streams flowing dians.
into the Ohio and Alleghany rivers on Southwestward of what is now in- the east, but an extensive area over the cluded within the boundaries of the mountains, in Pennsylvania and New state of Ohio, there was no trace of civ- York. ilization until the lower Mississippi was But neither the king's proclamation reached ; and, to the south, none until nor that of Governor Penn, nor the arriving at the Gulf. However, not- forcible removal, at times, of the inwithstanding this isolation, there were truders by military commanders, nor causes already operating--movements the passage of a law by Pennsylvania already on foot--which, in the end, broke inflicting death, "without benefit of the barriers that divided civilization from clergy," upon all who should not rebarbarism, and let in upon the Ohio move after a certain number of days country a current of emigration, which, had expired from the reception of even to this day, has not ceased to flow. notice to leave, were sufficient to stay
As early as 1764 instructions were the tide now setting in with resistless sent from the king of Great Britain to flow upon the waters of the YoughioJohn Penn, governor of Pennsylvania, gheny and Monongahela. Besides, giving the latter information that sev- there were adventurous spirits of the eral persons from his province and the frontiers, who were not alone in their back parts of Virginia had crossed the designs upon the wilderness. The old Alleghany mountains and located on Ohio company sought a perfection of lands lying not far from the Ohio, in their grant; the Virginia volunteers express disobedience of a proclama- of 1754, who had enlisted under a proction issued on the seventh of October lamation offering liberal bounties of lands, were also clamorous ; individual_But the treaty of Lancaster to the Ohio grants were urged ; even Sir William Indians, especially the Delawares and Johnson was ambitious of being gover- Shawanese, was obnoxious; however, nor of an armed colony south of the in the Logstown treaty of 1752 it was Ohio river, upon a model proposed by confirmed by them. Notwithstanding Franklin in 1754 ; and the plan of this, it was considered on part of the another company, led by Thomas Wal- British government better that no propole, was submitted to the English vincial settlement should be made in ministry.* There was but one thing to the trans-Alleghany region, hence the do-the title to the country must be proclamation of 1763 forbidding it. purchased from the Indians ; so, on The result of the treaty of Fort Stanthe twenty-fourth of October, 1768, a wix was, that all the country claimed council was held with the Six Nations by the Six Nations lying to the eastand their confederates, also with some ward of the Alleghany river, as far up independent tribes, although, as a mat- as what is now Kittanning, county-seat ter of fact, it was a conference with the of Armstrong county, Pennsylvania, Iroquois exclusively, as none others and all lying to the southward and signed the articles finally agreed upon. eastward of the Ohio river from PittsThe general government was repre- burgh down to the mouth of the Tensented by Sir William Johnson. There nessee river, in the present state of were also commissioners present from Kentucky, “and extending eastward New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Virginia. from every part of the said line as far The treaty was held at Fort Stanwix, as the lands formerly purchased, so as now Rome, in the state of New York to comprehend the whole of the lands It should be here understood that between the said line and the purchased the region sought to be opened up to lands or settlements,” except what was civilization (which has been already within the province of Pennsylvania, described) was claimed by the Six was sold by these Indians. Their lands Nations (Iroquois), and that the other in Pennsylvania east of that line were, at tribes held under them as tenants at the same time, purchased by that provsufferance.
ince. The way was thus made clear At Lancaster, in Pennsylvania, in for the march of civilization to the 1744, a deed was signed by the chiefs of Ohio from its head to the mouth of the these confederates, recognizing the Tennessee river; and it was not a great king's right to all lands that then were or length of time before settlements were that by his majesty's appointment dotting the wilderness to the westward should be included within the colony of of the Monongahela. As titles to Virginia. This was the basis for the tracts of land in the new purchase could grant of the five hundred thousand acres be obtained from either Pennsylvaniat to the Ohio company already described.
+ The Pennsylvania land office was opened in
1769. Several thousand locations were applied for * Adapted, from 'Taylor's Ohio,' pp. 180, 181. on the first day.
or Virginia, according to the location seventeenth of October, 1770—the third (causing trouble, of course, in what is visit he had made to the head of the now southwestern Pennsylvania, where Ohio. He embarked in a large canoe both provinces claimed the right to the three days after for the mouth of the soil), the people who were crowding Great Kanawha river, in what is now into the trans-Alleghany region were West Virginia. But he previously relargely Pennsylvanians and Virginians. cords in his journal, concerning Pitts
The influx of settlers continued, and burgh, that the houses are built of logs, with it sprang up a speculation in land. and ranged in streets ; that they were “ Land jobbers," as they were called, on the Monongahela and, as he supwere numerous and mostly Virginians, posed, about twenty in number, “infor a large part of the desirable lands habited by Indian traders." lay down the Ohio, within the jurisdic- Washington and his company reached tion of Virginia, beyond the limits the Mingo town on what is now the claimed by Pennsylvania. Now, the Ohio side of the river, just below the prince of these land speculators—these city of Steubenville, Jefferson county, “land jobbers ”—was no less a person on the twenty-second, where he found than George Washington. He and his twenty cabins and seventy Indian inassociates were entitled to enter large habitants “of the Six Nations,” that tracts of land by virtue of their services is, Senecas-Mingoes. More than sixty in the previous war with France ; but warriors of the Six Nations were also many were not content with their allow. found here, who were going to the ance because of these services; they Cherokee country to proceed to war would accumulate more by purchase, against the Catawbas. Having reached and none were more greedy in this re- the Great Kanawha by the first of gard than he who soon won the proud November, he began his return voyage title of “father of his country.'
As on the third, meeting on the fourth “a whatever connection can be traced be- canoe going to the Illinois with sheep." tween these speculations and Washing- On the seventeenth he was back to the ton is of interest, it is proper to explain Mingo town, where he made a signifi. that in 1770 this land-owner made a cant entry in his journal. “prospecting” tour to the west, to “ The Indians," he wrote, “ who research out more tracts than he had al- side upon the Ohio, the upper part of ready secured, and, in so doing, as we it at least, are composed of Shawanese, shall presently see, he traveled for some Delawares, and some of the Mingoes, distance, for the first and only time, on who, getting but little part of the conthe soil of what is now the state of sideration that was given for the lands Ohio. He reached Pittsburgh on the eastward of the Ohio [at the treaty of
Fort Stanwix, before mentioned], view **The Washington-Crawford Letters' (Cincinnati : Robert Clarke & Co., 1877), passim. Wash the settlements of the people upon this ngton finally secured over thirty thousand acres. [the branches of the Ohio] river with an uneasy and jealous eye, and do not ploring and marking" lands presaged scruple to say that they must be com- settlements soon to follow—if not down pensated for their right if the people the river to “the Little Kanawha," at settle thereon, notwithstanding the ces- least, in a few places (in what is now sion of the Six Nations. On the other known as the “ Panhandle" of West hand, the people of Virginia and else- Virginia) immediately upon the Ohio. where are exploring and marking all But we anticipate. the lands that are valuable, not only on In April, 1770, a Moravian mission the Redstone [in what is now Fayette was established among the Delaware county, Pennsylvania) and other waters Indians, on the east side of Beaver on the Monongahela, but along the river, in what is now Laurence county, Ohio as low as the Little Kanawha; Pennsylvania (between the Shenango and by the next summer I suppose they river and Slippery Rock creek), to which will get to the Great Kanawha, at was given the name of “ City of Peace.” least."
The missionary in charge was David Washington reached Fort Pitt on the Zeisberger. Soon after, another town twenty-first of November, and on the was laid out on the west side of the twenty-third started for his home. It stream, opposite the first. These miswas his last visit to the west.* Through- sions were the nearest ones to what is out all his canoe trip from Pittsburgh now the state of Ohio of any before that to the mouth of the Great Kanawha, time established, belonging to the Prothe saw no sign of civilization except at estant faith. Two years subsequent to a point just below the head of the Ohio.f this—that is, in the early spring of 1772 But it may be promised that this -Zeisberger took the old Indian trail state of affairs, as to the left bank of from Pittsburgh west to Tuscarawas with the river, was soon changed; for "ex- the intention of founding still another
mission among the Delawares—this one Washington's Journal of a Tour to the Ohio
to be on the Tuscarawas river, within River in 1770,' has been several times printed. (See • The Olden Time,' Vol. I., pp. 416-432 ; appendix the present limits of Ohio. It was loto the 'History of Western Pennsylvania,' pp. 392- cated by him two miles southeast of 406; also Sparks · Life and Writings of Washing- what is now New Philadelphia, Tuscaton,' Vol. II., pp. 516-534.)
rawas county, and was named “Beauti. + This was the residence of Alexander McKee
ful Spring" (in German“ Schönbrunn," (called by Washington " Mr. Magee"). It is only necessary to carefully examine Washington's de- in the Delaware language,
“ Welhikscriptions of the country as he moved down the Tuppeek"). A zealous poet thus sings Ohio, to convince one that no settlement of white of the “ Beautiful Spring : people had, in October, 1770, made its appearance on the left (or east) bank of the Ohio—not a single Away in the forest, how fair to the sight house below McKee's. All statements of settle- Was the clear, placid lake as it sparkled in light, ments having been made at Wheeling before this And kissed with low murmur the green shady shore, date are manifestly erroneous ; so, also, as to whence a tribe had departed, whose traces it bore ; others commenced above and below that point on Where the lone Indian hasten'd and wond'ring the river, prior to the time just mentioned.
His awe as he trod o'er the mouldering dust! tains about twelve houses. The chief who
the “Hardman.” He was called a king. To the pilgrims who toiled over mountain and A trader who resided there invited the wave!
king to take breakfast with Jones, “havHere they rested-here gushed forth salvation, to
ing previously informed him the Hardbring The fount of the Cross by the "Beautiful Spring." man) that I was no trader, but was a good
Soon after, another “Moravian In- man, whose employment among white dian” town was founded, and named people was to speak of God and heavenly “Guadenhütten.” It was on the same
matters, and came with that view to see river, in the outskirts of the present my brothers, the Indians." From PickaGuadenhütten, Clay township, Tusca- way the preacher journeyed to Chillicothe, rawas county, Ohio. These were the "the chief town of the Shawanese Infirst Protestant missions among the In- dians," "situated north of a large plain dians beyond the Ohio, and the super- adjacent to a branch of Paint creek. The intendent of both was Zeisberger. A plain is their cornfield which supplies [a] number of Indian “converts” from great part of their town. Their houses Pennsylvania peopled these establish- are made of logs." About three miles ments, while others were added from west by north from Chillicothe was a the tribes living in the vicinity. It had small town, the Indian name for which been far better, as the sequel shows, had signified "Crooked Nose's Place.” It these missions never been established. was, in appearance, a new village. Jones
On the fourth day of January, 1773, now directed his course toward the DelaDavid Jones, a minister of the gospel at ware Indians, "reaching Kiskapookee beFreehold, New Jersey, reached, by way of fore night, which is situated on a creek Pittsburgh, the mouth of the Scioto river, that empties into Scioto.” The town was on a visit to the Ohio Indians. By the situated about one mile from the river, in tenth he had moved up that river to an a course northeast by north from ChilliIndian town called “Kuskinkis,” about cothe, and at a distance of more than fourteen miles below the mouth of Paint twenty miles from the village last mencreek, a well-known affluent of the Scioto. tioned. After crossing the Scioto in a The destination of Jones was now the canoe, Jones made his way to the DelaShawanese town of Pickaway, situated ware Indian town, known as the “Stand“south of a brook that, east of the town, ing Stone,” near the present Lancaster, empties into Deer creek.” It contained Ohio. Traveling thence through two about one hundred souls, being a mixture small Delaware villages, he finally reached of Shawanese and other nations. East New Comer's town, the chief village of of Deer creek in a west northwest course, the Delawares. It was located on the at a distance of about three miles from west side of the Tuscarawas in the outPickaway, was a small town called “Blue skirts of what is now a town of the same Jacket's town.” The village only con- name, in Tuscarawas county, Ohio.