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The “Moravian Indian” village of had their depots of supplies largely at Guadenhütten, already described, was Pittsburgh and Detroit. It is not too visited by the traveler on the fourteenth of much to say that the whole country northFebruary. It was about ten miles, ac- west of the Ohio was soon overrun with cording to Jones' reckoning, up the river them, the Sandusky Indians being supfrom New Comer's town. He found at plied from Detroit, the residue of the Ohio the mission an Indian population consist - savages, by Pennsylvanians, from Pittsing of Stockbridges, Mingoes and Dela- burgh. The Virginians were not largely wares. They had neat log houses to dwell engaged as traders. Such was the conin and a good house for divine worship, dition of the Indian trade at the close of about twenty-two feet by eighteen, well the year 1773. seated, and a good floor and chimney. Three years from the time of WashingJones was informed by Zeisberger, who had ton's journey down the Ohio brought a charge of the two missions-Schönbrunn great change in affairs between the Monand Guadenhütten—that there were nearly ongahela and the Ohio. There was now eighty families belonging to the two towns (December, 1773,) a number of settleand that there were two ministers besides ments on the immediate bank of the river himself. The traveler made his way back last mentioned, in what is now the Pan. to New Comer's town, thence to the Ohio handle of West Virginia ; and they were river below Wheeling, and after crossing scattered through the wilderness eastward that stream journeyed homeward.* to the Redstone creek, where, in 1767,

As early as 1764 the commissioners of there was begun the first "clearing” in trade, in England, matured a general plan the woods, in the Monongahela valley. for the future management and conduct of Civilization had in truth reached the Ohio, Indian affairs, regulating, of course, the and it had come to stay; but across that trade with the different nations ; but par- stream was a country forbidden to the liament did not pass a bill authorizing white settlers ; emphatically the Indian these regulations until the next year. Not country; and so it was called. later than the opening of the year 1766,

CONSUL WILLSHIRE BUTTERFIELD. the trade began with the various tribes

+ Pennsylvania Archives' (O. S.), Vol. IV., pasliving northwest of the Ohio. The traders sim. Majur Basset (from Detroit) to General HaldiISAAC D. SMEAD.

mand, April 29, 1773 — MS. letter : Haldimand * See Jones' Journal' (New York : 1865), passim.

Collection.

[To be continued.]

AMONG those who have made success- remarkable success. In these northern ful efforts in one of the most important and middle latitudes where artificial heat departments of applied science is Mr. is so much depended upon and where at Isaac D. Smead of Toledo, Ohio, the the same time pure air in buildings is well-known head of several associated among the prime conditions of health, the firms, known as the Smead Warming and value of Mr. Smead's discoveries and apVentilating company. Mr. Smead was pliances should place him foremost among born in Coleraine, Franklin county, Mas- public benefactors. It is not too much to sachusetts, July 31, 1849. His father, say that the system of warming and venEzra Smead, was a mechanic, and added tilating which he has brought so near perto his resources in providing for his family fection is one of the most valuable contriby the cultivation of a small farm. The butions ever made to practical sanitary boyhood of Isaac was passed in his quiet science. New England home, when the district The beginning point of his successful school in winter and a few terms at a se- career in this direction was with the firm lect school comprised his opportunities of W. A. Pennell & Company, with whom for obtaining an education. His naturally he first found employment on his arrival at energetic spirit soon rebelled against the Bloomington in 1867, the firm having monotony and conservatism of rural New been organized but a short time previously. England life, and he determined to seek a A brief history of the firm will show the more congenial situation in the young and relation of Mr. Smead to Mr. Ruttan, growing west. ccordingly, at the age of upon whose original method he has made sixteen, against the wishes of his parents, so many important improvements. he left home and went to Bloomington, The important questions of sanitary Illinois, where he came at once in contact heating and ventilation had been diswith conditions which determined his fu- cussed, but no attempt had been made to ture course and led him to the successful solve them scientifically or practically prior solution of his life problem.

to the efforts of Honorable Henry Ruttan It is well known that Mr. Smead has of Coburg, Canada. Mr. Ruttan, after devoted more than twenty years of his life devoting careful study to the subject to the most assiduous and persistent efforts and procuring several patents, published to solve the problem of warming and ven- in 1862 a large volume, setting forth the tilating houses and public buildings in ac- theories which form the underlying princordance with the principles of sanitary ciples of the Ruttan system of warming science, and that he has achieved a most and ventilation. Among the first to be

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come convinced of the practicability of was opposed by Mr. Smead, they were Mr. Ruttan's method was B. R. Hawley of compelled to suspend operations. HowNormal, Illinois, who, in 1866, with the in. ever, a new company was organized tention of putting the system in practice, immediately, of which Mr. Smead was became associated with W. A. Pennell president, and business was again started. and Lemuel Grover under the firm name The offices of the company were of W. A. Pennell & Company. It was moved to Chicago ; after two years of soon after the organization of the firm that business success a new office was opened young Smead became associated with it. in Kansas City; in 1882 another office It is not our purpose to follow in detail was opened in Toledo, under the firm the successes and failures of the new en- name of Isaac D. Smead & Company; terprise, which was surrounded on all sides early in 1885, from the employés of the by obstacles. The experiments in which Toledo company, under the direct manthe firm were engaged in reducing Mr. agement of Mr. Smead, who had removed Ruttan's theories to practice, as well as the his residence to that city, two new companies scientific principles involved in them, so were formed, under the name of Smead enlisted the natural genius of the boy Warming and Ventilating company, one that he engaged in the work with all the with offices at Elmira, New York, and the ardor and enthusiasm of a veteran scien- other at Philadelphia; and in 1886 another tist. So valuable did his work become firm was organized, which also bears his and so rapid was his progress that his pro- name, with offices at Toronto, Canada. ficiency soon became recognized, and upon To Mr. Smead more than to any other the organization of the company in 1872, person is due the success of this noble and he was chosen its secretary. The newly or- truly useful enterprise. Of the fourteen ganized company began at once to push patents used in applying the Ruttan-Smead the enterprise with vigor, expending sev- system of heating and ventilation, all except eral thousand dollars to improve old pat- two or three are the inventions of Mr. terns and to make new ones. At the end Smead. So great have been the changes of four years scarcely a pattern remained introduced by him that, were the originathat was in use when the company was tor still alive, he would not be able to recorganized. During this period Mr. Smead ognize in the improved system that which displayed marvelous ingenuity in overcom. originally bore his name. When Mr. Smead ing mechanical obstacles, seeming insur- first interested himself in the subject, it had mountable; and such has been his readi- not reached the stage of theoretical demness and fertility of invention that the onstration, but under his practical genius enterprise has never lacked a new tool or and skill it can almost be said to be a perappliance to meet the necessities of im- fect solution of the problem of safe and provements which have been constantly healthy warming and ventilation of buildgoing forward. The company went on ings. prosperously until 1877, when, on account To show the rapid growth of the busiof an unfortunate investment in iron, which ness under Mr. Smead's management, it

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